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Full text of "Window and store display [microform] : a handbook for advertisers"

MASTER 

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NO. 94-821 73- 10 



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Author: 



Fischer, Albert T. 



Title: 



Window and store display 



Place: 



Garden City, N.Y 

Date: 

1922 



MASTER NEGATIVE # 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 
PRESERVATION DIVISION 

BIBLIOGRAPHIC MICROFORM TARGET 



ORIGINAL MATERIAL AS FILMED - EXISTING BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD 



Business 

263.3 
F52 



Fischer, Albert T. '' 

Window and store display; a handbook for advertisers, 
by A. T. Fisclier. Garden City, N. Y., and Toronto, Dou- 
bleday, Page & company, 403i-. 1922. 

xiv p., 1 1., 203, [Ii p. front, (port.) illus., plates, diagrs. V^Y"^. 



1. Advertising. 2. Salesmen and salesmanship. i. Title. 



Library of Congress 
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WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

A Handbook for Advertisers 



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WINDOW AND STORE 

DISPLAY 

A Handbook for Advertisers 

BY 

A. T. FISCHER 




GARDEN CITY NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

1922 



I* 






COPYRIGHT, 1921, BT 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

ALL AIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF 

TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, 

INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN 






PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES 

AT 

THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, N. Y. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

No one person has written — or could write — 
this book, since it is the record of experience of 
many individuals. 

In the task of assembling the data from which 
this book was prepared, as well as formulating the 
conclusions that have been drawn, also for 
research and editorial work, special mention 
must be made of C. W. Carter, who has worked 
with me faithfully through many years of hard 
and trying experience. 

To many others, including artists, plansmen, 
investigators, and assistants, whose names crowd 
in on me now, I hereby tender all due acknowl- 
edgment. 



A. T. Fischer. 



Cleveland, Ohio. 



i 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

MAKING A SCIENCE OF DEALER DISPLAY 

Antiquity of Display— Invention of Glass Show Windows— Origin of 
Posters— Development of American Advertising — Growlh of Trade 
Marks— Influence of Agencies on Advertising— Rise of the Modern 
Advertising Campaign— Display the Last Medium to Be Organized. 

CHAPTER II 

EVOLUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 
"Something" for the Dealer— " Pretty Pictures," Hangers, etc.— 
Evolution in Display Material— Overdoing Mere Bigness— Need to 
Study Display Laws— Old-time Methods— Hit-and-miss Manage- 
ment—Scientific Study Was Needed. 

CHAPTER III 

THE PLACE OF DISPLAY IN THE MODERN ADVERTISING 

CAMPAIGN 

Connecting Dealer Essential— Changing View of Advertising- 
Display a Sales Force in Itself— Sleeping Business— Reduce Burden 
of Lost Sales— Danger from Impeded Circulation— Display Influ- 
ences Consumer— Display a New Growth Factor— What Display 
Does for Manufacturers— What Display Does for Sales Force— 
What Display Does for the Public. 

CHAPTER IV 

APPLYING CIRCULATION STANDARDS TO WINDOW 

ADVERTISING 

Must Study the Possibilities— Possibilities of Space— Possibilities of 
Circulation — Circulation Varies with Location— Demonstrated Cir- 
culation Value of Dealer Windows. 

CHAPTER V 

800,000 RETAIL WINDOWS— WHAT THEY SIGNIFY 

Store Windows as Advertising "Medium"— Nature of the "Me- 
dium"— Differentiated from All Other "Mediums"— "Quality 
Circulation" 

vii 



VUl 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VI 

GETTING THE WINDOWS 
Old-time Dealers " Cooperated "—New Advertising Problems— 
"Waste in Advertising"— Problem of Scattered Distribution— First 
Attempt to Systematize Dealer-Cooperation— First Attempt to 
Organize Data on Cooperation — The Lesson Learned. 

CHAPTER VII 

THE DEALER'S SIDE OF IT 

Manufactm^rs' Viewpoint— Dealers' Viewpoint— Few Dealers Born 
Merchants — Need for Majority Cooperation — Majority Receptive — 
Dealer WiUingness— Help That Didn't Help. 

CHAPTER VIII 

MOTIVES WHICH MOVE THE DEALER 
Dealer's Viewpoint Final— Why Displays Failed— Manufactm^rs 
Make Mistakes — Buying to Throw Away — Common Objections to 
Displays. 

CHAPTER IX 

MANUFACTURERS SHOULD WORK ON A NEW BASIS 
Too Selfish Viewpoint — Mistaking Size for Domination— The First 
Object of Display — Dealers Not Antagonistic to Manufacturers' 
Displays— Dealer "Knows WTiat He Sees"— "Circulation" Which 
Interests Dealers — ^New Basis for Manufacturer. 

CHAPTER X 

MISTAKES OF THE PAST— HOW TO CORRECT THEM 
All Science a Slow Growth — Recent Development of Display Science 
— Former Status of Display Among Advertisers — Checking Up 
the Situation — New Code of Display Practice. 

CHAPTER XI 

DISTRIBUTION OF WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

MATERIAL 
Hit-and-miss Practice — Not One but Many Needed— Four Methods 
of Cooperation — Adopt Definite Plan — Salesman's Part in Plan — 
Not a Burden on Salesman — Fit Plan to Specific Needs — Waste 
Through Ignorance — Call Display by Its Right Name. 

CHAPTER XII 

WHAT DETERMINES THE ''LIFE" OF DISPLAY? 
Life of Display Material — Surviving the Selling Season — ^Term in 
Window — Opportunity for Repeat Showing— Construct for Service 
Intended. 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XIII 

COUNTER SPACE— AND HOW TO COMMAND IT 

Getting Leverage for Sales— Analysis of Counter Merchandise- 
Clever Display Overcomes Handicaps— Counter Way Is the Modern 
Way— Theft Is Negligible Factor— Counter Sales Are Quick Sales 
— Counter Display Not Always Merchandise Display. 

CHAPTER XIV 

HOW MUCH DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES» 
Specific Tests with Display— In Drug Stores— In Grocery Stores — 
In Candy, Hardware, Haberdasher Stores, etc.— When Salesman Co- 
operates—Experience of Dealers with Windows— Merchandise Sold 
when Displayed— Manufacturers Should Make Specific Tests— More 
Business Procurable — Immediate Definite Returns. 

CHAPTER XV 

THE FETISH OF "SIZE" 

What Is "Dominance?"— Physical EflFect or Mental Effect— Domi- 
nance Is Extension of Impress— Tricking the Eye — Color Con- 
tributes to Dominance — Restless Designs— Size Is Relative — Brand 
Emphasis Not Matter of Size — Danger in Manufactiu-er's Viewpoint 
—How Size Affects Use by Dealers— Smaller Material More Practical 
in Most Cases. 

CHAPTER XVI 

PICTURES MAKE THE MIND ACT 
Importance of Imagination— Pictures Stimulate the Desired Reac- 
tion—Study Motives— Motives Explained— Complex Origin of 
Motives— Importance of Emotion— Chance for Inhibitions— Reflec- 
tion Retards Action — Action on Impulse. 

CHAPTER XVII 

ANALYZING A PRODUCT FOR DISPLAY 
The "Big Idea"— Must Make Sacrifice— Peculiar Needs of Display- 
Display Space Differs from Other Space— Three Functions of Dis- 
play—Established Character of Display— Determine Dominant Idea 
—The "Different" Idea— Simplicity and Elimination. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

THE ART SIDE OF IT 

Sympathetic Artist Essential— Art vs. Commerce— Public the Real 
Patron of Art To-day— Technique of Display Art 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XIX 

VALUE OF POSTER TREATMENT IN DEALER DISPLAY 

Poster Principles — Secret of Poster Power — Origin of Poster — 
European Posters — Poster in America — New Impetus to Advertising 
Art. 

CHAPTER XX 

COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 

Function of Color — Need for Discrimination — Scientific Use of 
Color — Physical Basis of Color — Color Excites Feeling — Light vs. 
Dark Colors — Suggestion by Means of Color — Physical Pull of 
Color — Relative Area a Factor in Color Effect — Visibility of Colors 
— Color in Dealer Display — Quality in Display Not Dependent on 
Many Colors — How Color Acts. 

CHAPTER XXI 

THE COPY BURDEN 

The Copy Load — Reducing Copy — Modern Layouts Help Copy — 
Modern Style of Lettering — Compact Copy Area — Easy Reading 
Style. 

CHAPTER XXII 

CONSTRUCTION AN ALL-IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN 

SUCCESS OF DISPLAYS 

Dealer Looking for New Ideas — Street Car Cards — Meet Dealer's 
Viewpoint — The Old-time Hanger — Show Cards — Counter Stands 
— Counter Containers — Three Panel Screens — Value of Novel Con- 
struction — Be Sure Novel Construction Is Practical. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

THE MODERN USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 

Limited to Certain Kinds of Goods — Obstacle to Be Overcome — 
Goods Selected for Counter — Display Box Impractical — What Is a 
Display Container? — Various Types Available — Features to Consider 
— Merchandising Value of Containers — Sales Increased by Containers 

CHAPTER XXIV 

IMPORTANCE OF THE SMALL TOWN DEALER 

Small-town Consumers — Most Towns Are Small Towns — Small- 
town Dealers — "Main Street "vs. Wall Street — Surprising Volume — 
Closer to Community — Needs of Small-town Dealer — Potency of 
Displays — "Passersby" in Small Towns — Help Needed— Selected 
Dealer or Mass of Dealers? 



CONTENTS 



XL 



CHAPTER XXV 

HOW DISPLAYS MAY BE USED TO EDUCATE DEALER 

AND CLERKS 

Retailer Unable to Remember Everything — Customer Knowledge 
vs. Dealer Knowledge — Display Should Coach the Dealer — Keeping 
Track of Merchandise Facts — Utilizing Display to Educate Dealer. 

CHAPTER XXVI 

CONTINUITY IN PLANNED DEALER DISPLAY 

Plan for Series of Displays — Cumulative Value of Series — Few Manu- 
facturers Awake to Value of Series — Dealer Ready for Series — 
Manufacturer Multiplied Trade's Cooperation — Manufacturers Over- 
look True Situation — Schedule Plan Needed for Displays — Practise 
Forethought. 

CHAPTER XXVII 

PERMANENT DISPLAY AT THE DEALER'S 

Types of Permanent Signs — Success in Use — Coca Cola — Careful 
Planning Necessary — Success of Small Signs — Unusual Advantages — 
Decalcomanias and Transparent Signs — Long Life — Beauty — Util- 
ity of Such Signs — Returns on Investment. 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSINESS FORCE 

Infancy of Display Advertising — Growth in Appreciation — Need 
of Coordination — Special Week Campaigns — Economy of Store Dis- 
play Plan — Circulation Value — Strategic Value — Dealer Must Be 
Considered. 



INTRODUCTION 






Somebody had to write this book. 

Advertising in all its phases, except this one 
phase of connecting it up, has been studied and 
presented in books from every angle. But there 
was always this missing link. 

Planning the Advertising Campaign and arrang- 
ing the budget has seemed to include all the 
machinery for making retail customers for The 
Advertised Braxid—except the retail machinery. 

In fact, the recognition of Dealer Display as a 
definite advertising medium in itself has come 
only in the past decade. 

To-day every advertising man admits the need 
for more scientific management of Window and 
Store Display. 

But—they ask— how go about it? 

Only organized experience can build knowledge. 

This book is an earnest effort to present in a 
readily understandable way the plain facts about 
the use of display as an advertising medium as well 



xm 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION 



as a definite factor in selling— facts based on bed- 
rock experience. 

More than twelve years have gone into the 
building of this experience— twelve years of gather- 
ing and comparing statistics. 

The one end in view has been to show as clearly 
as possible: 

1. What dealers have had in the past. . 

2. What they need. ... 

3. How to get it. . . . 

4. What better display will do. . . . 

The book was written in the belief that it would 
be of practical and timely interest to every ad- 
vertising man and every manufacturer of a trade- 
marked product marketed through retail stores, 
as well as have a technical appeal to the advertis- 
ing fraternity. 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

A Handbook for Advertisers 



Window and Store Display 

A Handbook for Advertisers 
CHAPTER I 

MAKING A SCIENCE OF DEALER DISPLAY 

WHAT everybody knows, no one can 
deny. 
There is no need to whip up a froth 
of argument on the value of display in retafl 
stores. 

Dealer display in one form or another is the 
oldest of all promotion methods. 

The display which Wanamaker, Marshall Field, 
Macy, and other similar stores make in their 
plate-glass windows is not a bit diflPerent in prin- 
ciple from the display which the primitive trades- 
man made when he showed himself in the market 
place surrounded by his wares. 

More art, more subtlety, more scientific direc- 
tion, yes—but in purpose exactly the same. 

1 



\ 



Antiquity 
of Display 



2 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

The ruined walls of Pompeii still throb with the 
commercial life of its time, showing many in- 
scriptions in red and black pigment, designed to 
attract the notice of the public. Roman shops 
had their sign emblems, sometimes painted, 
but more often in stone or terra-cotta relief set in 
pilasters. It was common to see rows of goods 
set out in front of shops in ancient Rome, just as 
the small tradesman persists with his sidewalk 
display to this day. Roman booksellers dis- 
played actual show-cards, bearing the names of 
new books, in their windows. Glass was unknown 
for windows, but frequently the whole shop front 
opened out to the public— a practice still common 
throughout the Orient. 

Artist-craftsmen were early employed to make 
pictures of commodities as signs for shopkeepers, 
or emblematic figures outside shop doors. Com- 
ing to the Middle Ages it is said that many of the 
"old masters'" fruit or fish subjects were actually 
intended for shop signs. The public was illiterate. 
It could only be appealed to by display of the 
actual commodities or suggestive emblems or 
pictures. Symbols typical of a given trade, 
such as a hand for a glove-maker, a boot for a 



SCIENCE OF DEALER DISPLAY 



8 



i 



bootmaker, the red-and-white twined pole for the 
barber-and-blood-letter were in common use in 
the 14th century and have persisted down to our 
own day. 

Glass for window use dates from about the 
middle of the 15th century, the invention of 
printing came in 1454. These two were destined 
to revolutionize the business of marketing com- 
modities — ^but the glass shop window was the first 
to be recognized as a trade builder. Those old 
16th and 17th century shopkeepers may not 
have known how to read or write (except for 
figure calculations) but they were intensive mer- 
chandisers and knew the great psychological 
law of to-day — "The public buys what it sees." 

Before the great fire of London (1666) the 
streets were protected with hand rails for pe- 
destrians, and placards or handbills were often stuck 
u^ on these rails and posts and came to be known 
as "posters." 

Printing was not resorted to for trade promo- 
tion until long after it had been invented. 

All are familiar with the quaint newspaper 
"cards" and announcements of tea, coffee, medi- 
cine, or the latest book, appearing in the 17th 



Invention 
of Glass 
Show 
Windows 



Origin of 
Posters 



Develop- 
ment of 
American 
Advertising 



i, 



Growth of 

Trade 

Marks 



4 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

century in England. In America the similar 
newspaper announcements of new importations 
of goods likely to appeal to the Colonial house- 
holder and his dame, undoubtedly marked the 
beginning of advertising through the printed 
message. /The 200 newspapers in the United 
States at the end of the Revolution had grown to 
some 2,700 papers at the close of the Civil War. 
But the art of advertising as we have it to-day 
did not originate with newspapers, it arose from 
the needs of the manufacturers, who in the rapirf 
development of the factory system in the last 
half of the 19th century found themselves face 
to face with a brand-new problem in the history 
of the world— the increase of production beyond 
the bare economic necessities of the population 
and the need to fight individually for the largest 
possible share of any given market. 

The problems of production were paramount 
until the close of the 19th century. Dating from 
about 1890 there commenced that enormous in- 
crease in trade-marked merchandise which by 
1899, according to Census figures, was paying 
nearly $96,000,000 for advertising in the news- 
papers and periodicals of this country— a sum 



I 



SCIENCE OF DEALER DISPLAY I 

which in five years had jumped to nearer 
$146,000,000 and in ten years from 1899, namely 
in 1909, had more than doubled, reaching 
$202,533,245.* Meanwhile, the nation's wealth 
was increasing rapidly, more than doubling it- 
self between 1900 ($89,000,000,000) and 1912 
($188,000,000,000). There was more money to 
spend — and more spenders. But there were 
more manufacturers contending for the market. 

Advertising had already come to be the mainstay 
of the American publication (this $202,533,245 
being estimated as 60 per cent, of the total revenue 
of the publications in 1909). 

Every advertising man knows the story of the 
rise of the advertising agencies as related in the 
naive record of Geo. R. Rowell, the founder of 
Printers* Ink, in his "Forty Years An Advertising 
Agent." The agencies did what the individual 
trade-mark advertiser never could have accom- 
plished — they whipped the publications into a imi- 
form, dependable tool for advertising, ironing out 
the whimsical inconsistencies of rates, succeeding 

•Whereas in 1870 there had been only 486 trade marks registered in the United 
States, in the years from 1906 to 1913 there were added 85,792 trade marks, or an 
average of 5,000 new marks every year. In 1919 alone, more than 12,000 applications 
were filed. 



Influence of 
Agencies on 
Advertising 



lU i it i MXiC'j ■ 



Rise of the 
Modem 
Advertising 
Campaign 



6 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

first with the magazines and only very recently 
with the newspapers, threshing out the problems 
of so-called circulations until these, too, became 
dependable commodities, putting the whole thing 
on a practical basis for discussion, a proposition 
which could be presented by one business man to 

another. 

The advertismg agencies of America were the 
first to systematize Space as a commodity and 
place it on the market. They made it possible for 
advertisers to buy a definite unit of space, with a 
definite circulation value, for a definite price. One 
must never forget out of what a chaotic jumble of 
mismanagement, inconsistencies, and irregulari- 
ties the American Advertising Agencies produced 
a dependable working machine for trade-mark 

promotion. 

Hence rose out of promiscuous advertising the 
formal promotion method— i.e., the Modem 
Advertising Campaign. 

One of the fundamentals of any campaign is 
the fitting of parts to the whole— i.e., team work. 

Out of team work grew the systematizmg of 
auxihary methods of trade-mark promotion— the 
use of space in other circulatory systems, such as 



SCIENCE OF DEALER DISPLAY 7 

street cars, billboards, dead walls, fence signs, etc., 
all of which have come to be more or less organized. 

To-day each of these is recognized as a true 
medium with its own characteristic advantages 
and disadvantages. Each has its place in promo- 
tion and can be lined up for a definite part m the 
Advertising Campaign. 

Window and Store Display, on the other hand, 
is the last to become organized and put on a really 
scientific basis. 

Since 1914 advertisers have recognized more 
than ever before the need of definite linking up 
and rounding out of the campaign by means of 
properly planned dealer display. 

Magazines and newspapers charge for space ac- 
cording to circulation. 

In dealer display, on the other hand, space is 
free— and circulation greater as well as more selec- 
tive. 



Display the 
Last 
Medium 
to Be 
Organized 



ii 



tmi 



4 






"Some- 
thing" for 
the Dealer 



CHAPTER n 

EVOLUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 

THE oldest, most natural medium for ad- 
vertising is of course the space in the 
dealer's own window and store — right 
where the goods are for sale. 

In the Great American Patent Medicine Era of 
Advertising, right after the Civil War, the need of 
"something for the dealer" was shrewdly sensed, 
but in the absence of real knowledge of the sub- 
ject, this "something" was usually some small 
picture card for the dealer to hand out. It was 
usually just a picture — any picture from a blue 
satin slipper full of pink roses to a little girl playing 
with her kitten; or a noncommittal landscape — 
and invariably crudely printed on a handpress. 
Every child in those days possessed a "scrap book" 
in which were pasted the "pretty pictures" col- 
lected at the local stores or bestowed by grown-up 
shoppers. Any man or woman who will own up to 
forty-odd years can doubtless recall such a scrap 



EVOLUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 



book and visualize even now some particular 
"pretty picture" that was the pride of the collec- 
tion — but who can remember the names imprinted 
on the pretty cards and products they were sup- 
posed to advertise? 

The next step in "something for the dealer" 
was a card on a larger scale, lithographed and with 
the compliments of the advertiser elaborately 
enscrolled on the face of the picture. But practi- 
cally always this, too, was just another "pretty pic- 
ture," on a large scale. 

Punched with a hole and a string run through 
it, this "pretty picture" became a "hanger" — 
dear to the hearts of advertisers making their 
first struggling effort to enlist the good graces of 
the dealer and excite his cooperation to the point 
of "store display." 

This "hanger," or rather its descendant, a 
veritable chip off the old block, we have with us 
to-day. 

But there are other descendants, luckily ! 

Evolution, that practical Efficiency Law of the 
Universe, has done its work. Origination has 
been rewarded by the law of selection and survival 
of the fittest, in dealer display as elsewhere. From 



"Pretty 
Pictures," 
Hangers, 
etc. 



Evolution in 

Display 

Material 



10 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Overdoing 

Mere 

Bigness 



the specific show card, dealer display has progressed 
through various stages — from the joining of two 
or more flat cards or panels to form a screen, to 
the novel and often highly ingenious "cut-out" 
usually built in two or more planes to lend interest 
and attraction. 

The will to do — so far as the advertiser was 
concerned — has been the will to outdo, and with 
the increase in attention to advertising, there has 
grown a corresponding increase in attention to 
material for the use of the dealer — but the ten- 
dency until very recent years has been to strive for 
something not better but bigger than the other 
fellow. 

Some advertisers, in other words, have tried to 
apply to dealer display the principles of dominance 
which apply to other advertising space — they 
have made the mistake of playing "brute force 
'publicity'^ as the trump card of the pack in Ad- 
vertising. Maybe it is in many mediums — but 
the first thing to learn about dealer display is that 
the space is yours only conditionally — and you 
must learn how to "speak for it" nicely. 

The noisy, flashy, boisterous, unwieldy display 
doesn't get the tidbit of space so long as the dealer 



III 



EVOLUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 11 



is managing the business. Your display must in- 
gratiate itself by its own good manners to get the 
dealer's window. 

The oldest, best proved, most productive 
medium for advertising, has its own special laws 
which must be studied before it can be utilized 
successfully. 

The force of this fact first came home to the 
advertising world about a decade ago. Practically 
no attempt had been made up to that time to 
study the advertising value of dealer display and 
still less to systematize it — as has been done for 
publication mediums. 

Those engaged in the production of such dis- 
plays — lithographers and poster printers for the 
most part — confined themselves to the work of 
reproducing trade marks or name signs, the 
manufacturer himself furnishing specifications. 
Or, where the manufacturer did not furnish the 
design, the only creative effort took the form of 
elaborate ornament, scrolls, filigrees, etc., in a 
manner borrowed from the customary "label 
designing" of the day, which is happily now almost 
obsolete. 

These signs — for such they were rather than dis- 



Need to 
Study 
Display 
Laws 



Old-time 
Methods 



Hit-and- 
miss Man- 
agement 



Scientific 
Study Was 
Needed 



12 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

plays^were practically always flat cards or sheets, 
the artist simply concerning himself with one 
thmg— to get the design in a square or rectangular 
space of given dimensions. The manufacturer, for 
his part, passed these through as "okay" if they 
faithfully "followed copy" and happened to strike 
his personal taste. Apparently nobody troubled 
to consider what the dealer's attitude might be. 

Before 1910 it is safe to say that no manufacturer 
bothered to see whether such material was satis- 
factory and successful in operation. Manufactur- 
ers did not know whether the material they had 
purchased was successful or not. 

They did not know how many of their signs ever 
actually reached their own dealers. 

They did not know how many dealers liked and 
used the displays or how many did not like them 
and threw them away. 

They did not know what really became of the 
material. 

Manufacturers simply did not know— ten years 
ago. 

Scientific management was a new term in those 
days— and certainly no one had thought to apply 
it to dealer display! 



EVOLUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 13 

Any science presupposes research and original 
investigation — and nobody had felt that there was 
really enough at stake individually to investigate 
this oldest of all advertising mediums! 

There was simply nothing tangible about it. 

There was no systematic knowledge in books 
or in office files on this subject. There were con- 
victions a-plenty; and notions — ^but they were 
either hazy or broad generalities. 

Seemingly, every man had a right to his opinion, 
based on his own "experience," but not one had 
teachable or provable experience that he could 
pass on to another, because — 

There was absolutely no daia. 



If 



Connectmg 

Dealer 

Essential 



CHAPTER III 

THE PLACE OF DISPLAY IN THE MODERN ADVERTISING 

CAMPAIGN 

THE Modem Advertising Campaign is an 
evolution. Two decades have revolution- 
ized marketing methods in this country. 
Plans which in their day brought full measure 
of success for the advertiser will not suffice to 
launch the New Brand of to-day. 

For any branded product sold through retail 
stores, it is now an admitted fact that the ad- 
vertising back of it loses much of its force unless 
the interest of the dealer is secured. 

Selling is a compelling, or controlling, act. The 
more you leave open to chance the less you exercise 
your controlling function. In a modern adver- 
tising campaign, the value of the investment 
can be secured only when the consumer has identi- 
fied the advertised product at the dealer's store. 

Not to connect up the dealer with the whole 
selling program makes it hard for the consumer 

14 



DISPLAY IN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 15 



to make the identification either of Brand or 
Dealer. It leaves a vital factor open to chance. 

This weakens the entire advertising campaign, 
whatever its other mediums. 

The old theory of consumer demand was based 
on the principle that the advertising haunted the 
consumer's mind because of the vision of additional 
satisfaction. But with the multiplying of compet- 
ing brands and the mutual competition of vigorous 
advertising, it has become harder every year to get 
hold of the consumer mind! More and more 
advertisers have come to believe that however 
vivid the imagination and fireside musings of the 
reader of the advertisement, it is necessary to take 
the dealer into account and confront the customer 
at the store with some display which will either 
remind vividly or conjure up a brand-new picture. 

All your preparation of advertising and force 
of argument or reminder at the point of the sale 
are simply for the purpose of registering that pic- 
ture in the consumer's mind. She buys because 
of what she thinks, as a result of what you suggest, 
at the dealer's, tying up with your other adver- 
tising. 
Make no mistake about this! Sales depend on 



Changing 
View of 
Advertising 



Display a 
Sales Force 
in Itself 



Sleeping 
Business 



16 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

picturization, howsoever that may be accom- 
plished. And the shortest possible distance be- 
tween mentaJ picture (desire) and motor act (sale) 
is where cash and commodity actually change 
hands. 

Thus, display at the dealer's store does, of itself, 
by its very nature and independent of any other 
sales effort, stimulate demand for a product. This 
is an elementary fact. 

Display— in other words— -can he used as a simple 
and complete-in-itself method of marketing a given 
product, via retail stores, independent of all other 
methods of promotion. 

Somebody has used the expression "sleeping 
business" i. e.,— the business which is waiting to 
be stirred up for any commodity, in any market. 

Any man will agree that for any merchant to sit 
down and wait for the customer to make the 
demand is to miss untold possibihties. The pub- 
lic requires prodding, not only to create in it new 
wants, but actually to induce it to buy the goods 
which it frankly needs. The dealer selects his 
stock with a view to these possible wants and 
actual needs, in addition to those for which he 
estimates a direct demand. But having gathered 



DISPLAY IN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 17 



his stock, wouldn't he be foolish to fail to use his 
store windows and counters to show what he has 

for sale? 

Any national advertiser or any user of general 
publicity who does not provide for connecting up 
with the place where the goods are for sale is over- 
looking a large share of possible sales. 

He is deliberately turning his back on " sleep- 
ing business." 

Entirely apart from the nature of the goods, if 
the manufacturer is assuming to market them by 
means of advertising, he must, to get the full force 
of the advertising, find some way of connecting 
up with the dealer. 

Only thus can he reduce the burden of lost 
sales — an unnecessary tax on any business. 

Advertising is literally a matter of "circulation" 
in that the message of the manufacturer must 
circulate from beginning to end of the course. The 
message must travel the complete Route of the 
Sale from the manufacturer to the consumer. If 
any vital factor to the sale is overlooked this 
"circulation" is impeded, and impeded circulation 
stunts development. 

The advertiser who fails to pump his advertising 



Reduce 
Burden of 
Lost Sales 



Danger from 

Impeded 

Circulation 



18 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Display 

Influences 

Consumer 



throughout the complete channel of distribution 
is deliberately impeding natural circulation. 

No matter what else you do to advertise, you 
are not doing enough if you are not tying the 
message up with the specific dealer; in some way 
making him an integral part of your sales plan — 
not only to get the full possibilities of "consumer 
demand" as the logical points of your general 
publicity— but those untold other possibilities 
which fall in the class of business waiting to be 
awakened. 

Briefly stated, the reasons the manufacturer 
should connect the dealer's store with his general 
publicity are as follows: 

1. Store display arouses sleeping desires, adds 
business otherwise absolutely non-existent. 

2. Store display advertising of whatever descrip- 
tion increases consumer response to all other 
advertising, because of specific reminder. 

General Publicity Creates Thought— While Dealer 
Display on the Spot Where Cash and Commodity 
Change Hands, Creates Action. 

It is only when you have uncoiled the great 
springs of action that you discover how potent a 



DISPLAY IN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 19 



thing thought is. As Wrigley says, there is no 
such thing as "saturation point," in a modernly 
advertised and completely organized business. 
This fallacy of "saturation" was demonstrated 
by the gum manufacturers, since the "limits" 
they set ten years ago have been exceeded 
ten times over! And look at the automobile 
business. If anybody had told you ten years 
ago that every Tom, Dick, and Harry is an auto 
prospect would you have believed it.? Frankly, 
No. 

Isn't this what Herbert Hoover meant when he 
laughed at the idea of this country ever suffering 
from "over-production?" 

The sad truth is, we all discount our real pos- 
sibilities. We say advertising is a modern miracle 
that makes the desert blossom like the rose — but 
we nip off all the buds and young shoots and try 
to confine our responsibility to just the main 
trunk of Advertising, the big general publicity 
campaign — and leave all the sprouts, the new 
growth part of the business, to the local dealer — 
unheeding whether it flourishes or dies. 

Dealer display has an important place in the 
modern advertising campaign. It should be 



Display a 
New- 
growth 
Factor 






20 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



What 
Display 
Does for 
Dealers 



What 
Display 
Does for 
Manufac- 
turers 



considered as an integral factor in the method of 
marketing the Special Brands. 

It helps the dealer, helps the consumer as well 
as the Advertiser himself. Display answers the 
question from the dealer, "WTiere do I come in 
on your advertising.?^ " and furnishes a ready- 
made localized individual sales plan. 

Dealer display helps make better merchants of 
storekeepers who are not born merchandisers. 
It helps pay the rent of high-priced desirable 
locations. It makes the most of those less de- 
siralJe locations. It converts "uninterested** 
prospects into interested customers, makes 
passers-in of the ordinary passersby. 

Display increases movement of goods, speeds 
up the turnover, makes possible the buying in 
larger quantities, and makes profitable the han- 
dling of goods which offer small margin or individual 
sales. It saves personal sales effort for dealers, 
or guides the argument where they wish to push 

the sale. 

For the national advertiser, display offers the 
connecting link between all the preparatory work 
of selling and the actual closing of the sale. Dis- 
play at the dealer's safeguards returns from the 



DISPLAY IN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN 21 



EDUCATION 

DEALEI^ 

AfMO 

.CLEK2IC 



5AL&5 
DOLLAI^ 



^DDinonAT 

AI^GUMENT 

FOR 

SALES 
■ORCI 



^VEBTISmO' 

BIGHT 

WHEeC TUE 

GOOD5 



WHAT 

^ADVEeriSEB' 

GETJ* '^gpM 

PBOPEBLY- 

PLAhMED 
DIvSPLAy. 

MATEBIAL 



MEW^ 

SALES 

WITMOUT 

OTHER 

IDYEQTISING. 



BEDUCCD 
IJUBSTITUTIOnj 



TUI^MOVEB^ 

FOB, 

DEALEI2 



ale: 

F-ora. 



CHART SHOWING FUNCTION OF DISPLAY IN ADVERTISING 

CAMPAIGN 



What 
Display 
Does for 
Sales Force 



What 
Display 
Does for 
the PubUc 



22 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

advertising investment, increases actual results, 
prevents loss from missed sales, insures reminder 
at the opportune time for buying. It reflects 
and also extends the advertising in all other 
mediums, contributing actual new publicity as 
well as deciding unsettled sales. 

It strengthens the salesman's sales proposition 
with the trade, makes it easier to engage a pros- 
pect's attention, and cuts down selling time. 
It answers the house salesman's oft-put question 
how best to use the house advertising for his own 
order-book. 

Also for the consumer. Display answers the 
question on which hinges most mischance in 
general publicity ad vertising— namely : WTiere can 
I get it.? Moreover, Display is the best method 
yet found for cutting down the dangerous interim 
between interest and action consummating in 
actual exchange of consumer coin. 



I 



CHAPTER IV 

APPLYING CIRCULATION STANDARDS TO WINDOW 

ADVERTISING 

WE ALL know how it was with the News- 
papers as a medium— they did not arise 
full fledged as a waiting tool for the Ad- 
vertiser. They existed primarily for another pur- 
pose. Somebody had to see beyond that purpose 
additional possibilities, then patiently dig out the 
facts and finally remold this scattered, hetero- 
geneous, unwieldy medium into a single tool of 
definite usefulness for advertising. 

It was the same way with the Magazines— - 
before circulations reached a national scale. 
The possibilities were there all the time. It 
only remained to develop and utilize them. 

Primarily, the windows of a retail store exist for 
the benefit of that dealer, not the manufacturer. 

But that does not prevent the manufacturer 
from seeing the latent possibilities— and using 
them for his own purpose, if he can do it. 

23 



Must 
Study the 
Possibilities 



Possibilities 
of Space 



Possibilities 

of 

Circulation 



Circulation 
Varies with 
Location 



24 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

The factors which make retail windows a 
valuable medium of Advertising are — Space and 
Circulation, the same as with other mediums. 

The space alone in retail store windows covers 
more than 33,000,000 square feet. It is choice 
as to location, in the sense that it is always 
on the line of traflSc for that community and fully 
protected. It is yours for the asking. There 
is a way to get it if you fit your proposition to the 
dealer. 

And consider Circulation! 

Circulation — as applied to Window Display — 
has solely to do with Location. 

There are two sides to Circulation as the Ad- 
vertiser views it — Quality and Mass. 

The greater of these is Mass — or volume. 
The point which Advertisers up to now have 
failed to realize is that Window Display Circula- 
tion is not purely theoretical — it has a demonstra- 
ble quantity. 

It can be audited like any other circulation. 

You can pick out any store and by ticking off 

pedestrians as they pass by during the business 

hours of the day know the total number of possible 

customers there existed on that day for that dealer. 



WINDOW DISPLAY CIRCULATION 

You can pick out any store and by ticking off 
pedestrians as they pass by during the business 
hours of the day know the total number of possible 
customers there existed on that day for that dealer. 

Then by duplicating the same list on different 
kinds of days,— covering weather, season, local 
shopping habits and similar conditions—you can 
quickly strike your averages and estimate the total 
for any specific period. 







AVERA(5E PAS5CR5 BY 

PER HOUR 372 
PER DAir-(12 HKS.)-4,464 



THE CIRCULATION VALUE OF A WINDOW DEPENDS 

ON ITS LOCATION 



24 



Possibilities 
of Space 



Possibilities 

of 

Circulation 



Circulation 
Varies with 
Location 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



The factors which make retail windows a 
valuable medium of Advertising are — Space and 
Circulation, the same as with other mediums. 

The space alone in retail store windows covers 
more than 33,000,000 square feet. It is choice 
as to location, in the sense that it is always 
on the line of traffic for that comnmnity and fully 
protected. It is yours for the asking. There 
is a way to get it if you fit your proposition to the 
dealer. 

And consider Circulation! 

Circulation — as applied to Window Display — 
has solely to do with Location. 

There are two sides to Circulation as the Ad- 
vertiser views it — Quality and Mass. 

The greater of these is Mass — or volume. 

The point which Advertisers up to now have 
failed to realize is that Window Display Circula- 
tion is not purely theoretical — it has a demonstra- 
ble quantity. 

It can be audited like any other circulation. 

You can pick out any store and by ticking off 
pedestrians as they pass by during the business 
hours of the day know the total number of possible 
customers there existed on that day for that dealer. 



WINDOW DISPLAY CIRCULATION 

You can pick out any store and by ticking off 
pedestrians as they pass by during the business 
hours of the day know the total number of possible 
customers there existed on that day for that dealer. 

llien by duplicating the same list on different 
kinds of days,— covering weather, season, local 
shopping habits and similar conditions— you can 
quickly strike your averages and estimate the total 
for any specific i)eriod. 




THE CIRCLLATION \ALUE OF A WINDOW DEPENDS 

ON ITS LOCATION 




AVERAGE 

VASSEtiS BY 

PER HOUR 

1791 

V 



MEDIUM SIZE 
GITIUS 
50P00 to 
Z50,000 





AVERAGE 
PASSERS BY 
PER0AY-(12HRS) 
21,492 






LARGE CITIES 
Z50,000 
AND UP 






! 


mwmm 


"A 


B - — 




^i^ 






UP TOWN LOCATIONS 
AVERAGE PfiSSESiS BY 

PER HOUR 556 
PER PAY- C12 HRS)6,672 



DOWN TOWN LOCATIONS 

AVERAGE PASSERS BY 

PER HOUR 3,&05 

PERPAY-UZ nsi$,)4Z/y60 



THE CIRCULATION VALUE OF A WINDOW DEPENDS 

ON ITS LOCATION 



CIRCULATION STANDARDS 



25 



Then by duplicating the same test on different 
kinds of days — covering weather, season, local 
shopping habits and similar conditions — you can 
quickly strike your averages and estimate the total 
for any specific period. 

That is in fact what modern merchants do in- 
dividually before picking their own locations — a 
candy man, for instance, wishing to establish a 
store, checks the passersby at different locations, 
finds out the average per day, knows his percentage 
of probable sales from that particular type of traffic, 
estimates thereby the sales volume to be expected 
from the location, figures therefrom what rent he 
can afford to pay — and makes his decision. 

The success of the United Cigar Stores in picking 
their locations on the basis of circulation almost 
entirely independent of size, is common knowledge. 

WTiat you can do for one store you can do for a 
chain of stores or for different types of stores in 
different kinds of location in different sizes of cities 
and towns in different parts of the country. 

And then you begin to have demonstrable cir- 
culation. 

With a thousand displays in a thousand dealer 
windows of a given type of store you can very 



Demon- 
strated 
Circulation 
Value of 
Dealer 
Windows 




AVXSACjE 
VASSISIS BY 
PER HOUR 
1791 
V 




UP TOWN LOCAHONS 
AVERAGE PASSEXi5 BY 

PER HOUR 556 
PERPAY-C12HR5.)6,672 



DOWN TOWN LOCATIONS 
AVERAGE PA55ERS BY 

PER HOUR 3,5 05 
PER DAY'UZ HR5.) AZp^O 



THK CIKCl 1^\T1()X VALUE OF A WINDOW DEPENDS 

ON ITS LOCATION 



CIRCULATION STANDARDS 



25 



Then by duplicating the same test on different 
kinds of days— covering weather, season, local 
shopping habits and similar conditions — you can 
cjuickly strike your averages and estimate the total 
for any specific period. 

That is in fact what modern merchants do in- 
dividually before picking their own locations — a 
candy man, for instance, wishing to establish a 
store, checks the passersby at different locations, 
finds out the average per day, knows his percentage 
of probable sales from that particular type of traffic, 
estimates thereby the sales volume to be expected 
from the location, figures therefrom what rent he 
can afford to pay — and makes his decision. 

The success of the United Cigar Stores in picking 
their locations on the basis of circulation almost 
entirely independent of size, is common knowledge. 

What you can do for one store you can do for a 
chain of stores or for different types of stores in 
different kinds of location in different sizes of cities 
and towns in different parts of the country. 

And then you begin to have demonstrable cir- 
culation. 

With a thousand displays in a thousand dealer 
windows of a given type of store you can very 



Demon- 
strated 
Circulation 
Value of 
Dealer 
Windows 



26 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



definitely estimate by the law of averages that you 
will get for any and for each individual display a 
specific average circulation. 

The law of averages — when you approach the 
thousand basis — ^gets to be pretty reliable. 

All the little eccentricities and idiosyncrasies of 
individual wilfulness or circumstantial re-action, 
correct each other, as you approach one thousand 
cases — and of course beyond one thousand they 
become more and more punctiliously accurate. 
Business men to-day very thoroughly appreciate 
this fact — namely, that there is nothing so depend- 
able as statistics — if you have enough of them ! 



CHAPTER V 

800,000 RETAIL WINDOWS— WHAT THEY SIGNIFY 

IT IS only after looking at the proposition 
from all sides that any manufacturer can gain 
a fair idea of windows as an advertising 
medium. 

It is only by comparison of actual figures that a 
manufacturer can realize the tremendous possi- 
bilities in the retail store windows throughout the 
whole country, and what they signify. 

The retail window is an extraordinary medium. 

And it has one unique advantage over all other 
mediums known to advertisers — the advantage of 
furnishing the advertising right on the spot where 
the goods themselves are for sale. 

To talk about space as space and circulation as 
circulation is hardly enough for the manufacturer 
advertiser. He must know in concrete terms 
something more definite about the kind of space 
and the kind of circulation. 

To talk about dealer windows as an advertising 

27 



Store 

Windows as 
Advertising 
"Medium" 



1 



28 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



800,000 RETAIL WINDOWS 



29 



Nature 
of This 
"Medium" 



medium requires some explanation and tangible 
figures. 

At the same time with all the difference between 
this and all other recognized mediums, it is very 
essential to recognize many things they have in 
common. 

Let us put it this way: 

Suppose some solicitor told you there was one 
advertising medium in this country which has a 
total circulation of 106,000,000 — not counting 
duplication. 

Then suppose he explained to you that this cir- 
culation was not to be taken as a whole, but nicely 
broken up in chunks, according to territory and 
different commodity appeals — the food appeal, the 
hardware appeal, the drug sundry appeal, etc., etc. 

He would have to explain to you that the space 
in this medium was measured not in columns and 
inches, but in units varying from 4 ft. to 24 ft. in 
length, by 6 ft. in height, with an average of all 
units 7 ft. by 6 ft. 

He would explain to you that for the most part 
this space was open for seasonable advertising only, 
but that in season and in reason you could have it 
for long or short time. 



He could present statistics to prove that the aver- 
age showing is one week's time— with many, many 
instances recordable where the showing once secured 
continued for two, three, and even longer number 
of weeks — in certain cases a year or two years. 

He could assure you that without exception 
every large advertising success in this country had 
utilized this medium. 

In not a few instances it has been the main 
medium — and in many cases the sole medium of 
advertising. 

Always he could prove to you it has been the 
most economical medium, based on demonstrated 
circulation and actual check-up on sales. He 
might add that no one has ever estimated — or tried 
to estimate — the total volume of sales resulting 
from use of this single medium. But you would 
readily agree that it would undoubtedly run into 
many, many billions of the annual total business 
of the United States. 

This medium is not a magazine, he would say — 
yet it combines the circulation totals of all maga- 
zines—and then multiplied by three! It is not a 
newspaper, but sends out the same message in 
widely scattered territory, and the life of its mes- 



Differen- 
tiated from 
AU Other 
"Mediums" 



30 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



sage is almost invariably seven times that of any 
newspaper advertisement. It is not a car-card, 
and its space does not rmi in two fatiguing parallel 
lines; but instead, each unit of space is set oflF by 
itself, no two exactly alike, but each hangs on the 
public highway like a separate picture where 
all passersby can see. It is not a billboard— 
although undeniably it has considerable billboard 
value and if placed end to end its total 8C 0,000 
units would measure fully 5,600,000 linear feet of 
space for appealing to the outdoor public, or 
33,600,000 square feet. 

This space, he would say, consists of: 

172,842 Grocery 

Store Windows 
147,980 General 

Store Windows 
46,398 Drug Store 

Windows 
42,217 Candy Store 

Windows 
37,116 Cigar Store 

Windows 
29,445 Shoe Store Windows 
23,009 Jewelry Store Windows 



^^=5^ 


C^^^ 


b 


THIS SPACE \S 

YOURS WITHOUT 

COST IF YOUR 

DISPLAY S«nSFIE^ 

1 THE DEALER. 


^=^ 

:^^ 




y^^ 







800,000 RETAIL WINDOWS 31 

32,472 Department Store Windows 

37,563 Furniture Store Windows 

29,080 Hardware Store Windows 

18,770 Haberdasher Store Windows 

40,531 Auto Supply and Garage Windows 

— to say nothing of book stores, news agencies, 
meat markets, barber shops, restaurants, repair 
shops, holes-in-the-wall, etc. 

This means, for each of these lines or divisions of 
trade, a circulation equal to the population of the 
United States — not only once, but repeated over 
and over again. 

Not only volume is hereby reached, but quality 
is secured by this medium, because of the fact that 
the circulation is divided up into precisely the kind 
the advertiser always seeks, namely, possible im- 
mediate customers for his individual dealer and 
product. 



"Quality 
Circulation" 



GETTING THE WINDOWS 



33 



Old-time 
Dealers 
*'Co- 
operated" 



New 

Advertising 

Problems 



CHAPTER VI 

GETTING THE WINDOWS 

IN THE early days when fewer brands were 
clamoring for attention it was easier to get 
dealer cooperation. 
If the dealer had your goods and received your 
display the most natural thing for him to do was 
to " stick it up somewhere in sight." In those days 
the retailer had the feeling that it was up to him 
to push whatever he had in stock. But the change 
which gradually shifted the burden of making sales 
from the dealer to the manufacturer took part of 
this initiative away from the dealer. Moreover, 
the modern system of marketing had a tendency to 
develop many small retail stores and minor trades- 
men instead of the concentration of retailing in a 
few capable merchants' hands. 

The very success of Brand Advertising brought 
with it an entirely new set of problems. In 1910 
there was founded for the purpose of studying these 
problems, the Association of National Advertising 

32 



M 



II 



i 



Managers, which at a later date was changed in 
name to the Association of National Advertisers. 

Taking up successively the various problems of 
waste in national advertising, in duplication, in 
undependable circulation, etc., the A. N. A. M. 
early in its career turned attention to the subject 
of waste in dealer advertising. 

Booklets, circulars, and such counter distribu- 
tion material came into chief prominence as well as 
display material. The chief waste was found to be 

1. Failure of jobbers to pass the manufactur- 

ers' display material on to the retailer. 

2. Failure of stores to use all material received. 

Some of the largest advertisers, such as Armour, 
Moxie, Coca Cola, etc., etc., had already adopted 
the plan of using their own crews for installing dis- 
play material. Being products of universal con- 
sumption with plenty of dealers in every important 
locahty, this plan of crew service for dealer display 
was apparently working out all right. 

But these large advertisers had distribution 
ranging all the way from 25,000 dealers to 300,000 
dealers, whereas there were many in the Associa- 
tion who from the nature of their sales proposition 



"Waste 
in Adver- 
tising" 



Problem of 

Scattered 

Distribution 



34 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



First 

Attempt to 
Systematize 
Dealer Co- 
operation 



would never hope to have more than a few thou- 
sand outlets, at the very most. 

Working on the assumption, however, that the 
real way to get displays in dealer windows was to 
put them there, and already having much data in 
my possession from private investigations, I per- 
sonally worked out and submitted to the dealer 
service committee of the A.N.A. M. in 1913 what 
looked like a very workable plan for getting manu- 
facturers' displays in the windows of dealers — at a 
given time and in a given territory to tie up with 
other advertising. This plan was carefully out- 
lined and received the endorsement of the Associa- 
tion to the extent that I was encouraged to go 
ahead with all preliminaries, organizing the coun- 
try into definite display territories and securing 
district display managers and under them, their 
necessary corps of window trimmers. This or- 
ganization, under the name of the Dealer Service 
Bureau, was brought to the attention of the leading 
American manufacturers who were by this time 
crying out against waste. 

The plan was all right — it still is all right — but 
to cut a long story short, it did not work out on a 
satisfactory volume basis. Those manufacturers 



GETTING THE WINDOWS 



35 



who were ready and desirous of installing displays 
the first season had, with a few notable exceptions, 
such a heterogeneous mess of odd-lot, hit-and-miss, 
unrelated material that it was in most cases im- 
possible to produce a creditable window without 
using big stocks of the merchandise itself to put a 
semblance of unity into the display. This ob- 
viously was impossible with the average dealer, 
and was also expensive in time required for trim- 
ming the window. 

Then instead of an installing service, I organized 
an investigation service to secure definite facts and 
figures as to retail dealers' use of displays. This, to 
the best of my knowledge, was the first attempt at 
an impersonal and impartial investigation of dealer 
attitude toward using manufacturers' display 
material (1914). 

This investigation service was destined to render 
even greater aid to advertisers than the installing 
service first contemplated. It forced a studv of 
the whole subject from a much broader angle of 
usefulness— not merely, how to get displays in the 
window if the manufacturer is able and willing to 
pay for the actual service of trimming the window 
—but, what is most important, how to plan all dis- 



First 

Attempt to 
Organize 
Data on Co- 
operation 



1 



The Lesson 
Learned 



36 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



flays in such way as will make them most readily ac- 
ceptable to the dealer to the end that he will be more 
than willing to put them in the window himself. 

This opens up a much broader, far more useful 
study of the real problem. 

It applies to more advertisers, more dealers. 
It leads to a larger volume of windows. 

More than this, it has one big vital lesson — it 
shows the unfailing natural law of the survival of 
the most fit. It leads to higher evolution in the 
planning of worth-while dealer material. 

And thus, out of what threatened to be a mis- 
fortune in the non-success of the installing or- 
ganization there actually grew the greatest of all 
gains — the means of studying by first-hand investi- 
gation under all sorts of circumstances the great 
neglected problem in American Advertising — 
Getting the Displays in the Window. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE DEALER'S SIDE OF IT 

IT'S the fashion to blame lack of cooperation 
on the dealer and consider it as prima facie 
evidence that he is the weak link in the chain 
of distributing merchandise. 

Ask almost any advertising manager who has 
suffered this loss to explain it and he will pretty 
surely ascribe the failure to one of two causes: 

1. Dealer too lazy to bother with display. 

2. Dealer does not recognize the value of the 

display. 

But when you go at this the other way round — 
when you talk direct to the dealers— you wcn't 
find the same analysis of cause and effect by any 
means. It is true that there are a great many 
retail storekeepers who have neither the training 
nor the natural instinct which makes successful 
merchants. Only a small proportion make a life 

37 



Manufac- 
turers* 
Viewpoint 



Dealers* 
Viewpoint 



Few Dealers 

Bom 

Merchants 



Need for 
Majority Co- 
operation 



I 



38 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

profession of store management, many, many come 
into their proprietorship of a retail store quite by 
accident of chain of circumstances, many others 
"try it out" as they do everything else in hfe. 
Although there are roughly 800,000 retail stores in 
this country we are not like France a "nation of 
little shopkeepers." The mortality of manufac- 
turers' mailing lists certainly indicates the amount 
of shifting and changing continually going on in the 
personnel of the storekeepers of this country, easily 
10 per cent, a year. 

Probably 15 per cent, of those who set up shops 
for the public are fit by nature or fit themselves for 
the important service of retailing to the consumer. 

What does this mean? 

It means that the rank and file are amateurs and 
always will be amateurs in merchandising. 

The bom merchants will give good cooperation 
whenever it is to their interest to do so-and they 
will often do this with or without any help you 
furnish. They do it for themselves certainly, for 
what they expect to get out of it. 

But there is the other 85 per cent.— the rank and 
file of the army of storekeepers. There they are 
and it stands to reason you can't ignore them with- 



THE DEALER'S SIDE OF IT 



39 






out losing efficiency of 85 per cent, of your distrib- 
uting machinery. On the other hand, you simply 
must see them for what they are — the rank and file 
— the common soldiers of merchandising — and it is 
up to you to train and officer this dealer rank and 
file so as to perform the service you require of this 
little army. 

Remember, that individuals who are not born 
leaders themselves are most tractable and efficient 
in routine services. 

If you as a manufacturer are losing about 85 per 
cent, of your dealer cooperation, don't blame the 
rank and file but see what's wrong with your leader- 
ship and managership, for in nine cases out of ten 
that's where the real failure lies. 

Probe deep and find the reasons. 

Careful analysis of the attitude of retailers in 
many lines shows that a majority of dealers stand 
ready to make displays for the manufacturer fea- 
turing some Special Brand. The occasional dealer 
who refuses to use manufacturer's display mate- 
rial on principle is hardly a factor worth worrying 
over — less than three fourths of 1 per cent, when 
you come to actually count noses. A very much 
larger number may be classed as indifferent, that is 



Majority 
Receptive 



40 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Denier 
Willingness 



they will not express any definite attitude one way 
or the other. Frequently they will represent as 
high as 5 per cent, of the total list. The rest of 
any manufacturer's dealer list is made up of two 
great classes — those rendering good display cooper- 
ation, and those not rendering it. 

But here is the point: 

Careful check-up on display attitudes of dealers in 
many different lines showed that 13 per cent, of 
the entire list claimed to have received little or 
nothing in the way of display; whereas 35 per cent, 
said they received display material from the re- 
spective manufacturers which for some specific 
reason was unsatisfactory; and another 9 per cent, 
said that part only was satisfactory for their use. 

Here is a total of 57 per cent, of a composite list 
of dealers, who apparently are entirely willing and 
waiting to complete the chain of merchandising to 
the consumer, but the manufacturer fell down in 
some way or another in furnishing the right sort 
of display material! 

Here was a loss of 57 per cent. eflSciency In dealer 
cooperation — taking dealers in all lines as a whole 
in a composite test. 



I 



THE DEALER'S SIDE OF IT 



41 



m 






I 



The loss varied with the different lines as you 
will see by the figures attached — 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF QUESTIONING COMPOSITE 

LIST OF DEALERS ON MANUFACTURER'S 

DISPLAY MATERIAL 

Question: Do you think manufacturers whose goods you handle fur- 
nish the right sort of store and window advertising ma- 
terial? 

Answers: Taken down in personal interview, analyzed as follows: 



Product 



L Grocery . 

2. Notions and 

Furnishings . 

3. Hardware 

(cutlery) . . 

4. Drug (Inc. 

Conf . Tobac- 
co and Sta- 
tionery) . 

5. Shoe and Shoe 

Repair . 

6. Tire Store 

Garage . 

7. Jewelry . 



Satisfied 
with 
Dis- 
plaj's 

% 


Satisfied 
Some 
Only 

% 


Not 
Satisfied 
with 
Ma- 
terial 

% 


Received 
No 
Dis- 
play 

% 


Would- 
n't 
Use 
Any 
Way 

% 


34.85 
25.51 
41.24 

40.16 

37.91 

63.79 
36.84 


10.61 
14.37 
15.30 

7.33 
1.31 

1.32 


34.04 
37.24 
32.15 

33.24 

31.37 

27.58 
47.37 


15.84 

16.13 

7.32 

12.85 

16.99 

3.46 
11.84 


.39 
.59 

.22 

1.60 
.66 



No 
Answer 



% 
4.27 

6.16 

3.77 

4.82 

11.76 

5.17 
2.63 



On the basis of these figures it would appear that 
dealer "helps" were not really "helps" to the 
majority of dealers. It seemed that about the best 
display assistance was in the merchandising of auto 
tires — and the least assistance was found in notions. 



Help That 

Didn't 

Help 



rhe 



42 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



mi 



But the majority of all the lines were furnishing 
satisfactory material to only a third or a half of 
their dealers. 

Think of it! 

An average of 57 per cent, of dealer cooperation 
thrown away through some failure — either in 
planning the display or in distributing the display 
— ^by the manufacturers. 

Is the fault with "dealer cooperation" or is it 
with "manufacturer cooperation"? 

After all, that is the real question. 



t 



CHAPTER VIII 

MOTIVES WHICH MOVE THE DEALER 

WHAT are the motives which move the 
dealer to use display material.?^ 
The practical thing to do is to face the 
facts squarely and never lose track of the real ends 
the dealer has in view. You can then understand 
his motives and see that he is not actuated by 
childish whim or ignorance or indifference, as so 
many manufacturers seem to suppose. 

If you look at the figures on page 40 you will see 
that out of the total 57 per cent, of dealers who 
didn't cooperate there were 13 per cent, who 
claimed not to have received the material. The 
remaining 44 per cent, did not cooperate although 
they had received material. 

Let us analyze the reasons why those dealers did 
not use the manufacturer's advertising material. 

In the first place, we must none of us ever forget 
one fact: 

The dealer is the natural guardian of his mjon win" 

4S 



Dealer's 

Viewpoint 

Final 



44 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Why 

Displays 

Failed 



dow space — he has a right to censor it — to do with it 
as he sees fit. 

If you know motives you can largely predicate 
actions. 

The motives of the dealer are two-fold — 

1. To make sales. 

2. To increase store prestige. 

From the point of sales, the m.otive is Gain, while 
from the point of Prestige the motive is a combined 
one of Pride and Future Gain, the exact proportion 
depending on the personal makeup of the dealer. 
But Pride is a mighty element always with retail 
dealers. 

Now in this investigation to see why 44 per cent. 
of those receiving displays failed to make use of 
them, it is interesting to note all the various reasons 
assigned by dealers as follows: 

Display was received in wrong season for sales. 

Display arrived too late for the purpose or link- 
up intended. 

Amount of business did not justify complete 
window. 

Small appeal of product to dealer's class of trade. 



MOTIVES OF DEALER 



45 



Small profit in handling article. 
Display not distinctive enough to attract atten- 
tion. 
Display was too cheap looking. 
Display was too gaudy for taste of dealer. 
Display was out of keeping with character of 

store. 
Not the kind of material to increase store pres- 
tige. 
If the advertiser will study these reasons he will 
see how most of them fall naturally under the two 
principal motives, namely: 

1. Desire to make sales. 

2. Desire to increase store prestige. 
Nothing could be more eloquent than the plain 

reasonableness of these simple objections! 

More than that, evidence would seem not only 
to release the dealer from all this charge of lack 
of cooperation but fix the blame on the manu- 
facturer. Many manufacturers furnish displays 
on the assumption that they are just the thing 
for the purpose of the dealer. They take the 
attitude of the fatherly grown-up administering 
exactly what's needed by the peevish child — and 
either ramming it down by force or wheedling 



Manufac- 
turers Make 
Mistakes 



46 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Buying 
to Throw 
Away 



and coaxing — maybe sometimes even misrepre- 
senting it as candy. 

How is the manufacturer going to secure the 
necessary dealer cooperation? 

The answer is simple. 

This can only be done by carefully considering 
the motives that actuate the dealer. If the dis- 
play, on its face, does not offer opportunity to 
make sales or increase prestige, and if the display 
is not distributed properly and in time for suc- 
cessful utilization by the dealer, it is unreasonable 
for the manufacturer to expect good results. 

Surely it would be logical to study the require- 
ments for a given product and type of dealer be- 
forehand and plan the display by means of this 
knowledge. 

Just a little common sense applied to the psy- 
chology of dealer and display would obviate much 
loss. I personally know of many, many cases where 
a salesman proposing a type of display has been told 
by the manufacturer that it really did fulfill all the 
requirements. But it cost too much— and the 
manufacturer's policy, as far as display material 
was concerned, was to buy the kind of material which 
he could afford to have his dealers throw away ! 



MOTIVES OF DEALER 



47 



One large food manufacturer was typical of 
many when he stated that he bought displays for 
grocers with a view always to how little he would 
lose if the display was not utilized ! 

The vast majority of dealers are willing to make 
displays. But here are some of the reasons they 
give for rejecting the manufacturers' material: 

1. Not distinctive enough. 

2. Too hard to put together. 

3. Not the kind of material to increase store 

prestige. 

4. Too large for the space the dealer has. 

5. Too small for the purpose. 

6. Not the right selling season. 

7. Not enough profit in the probable business 

to justify the amount of space. 

Manufacturers who blame the retailer for not 
using all the displays received should try to look 
at their own material as the dealer will look at it. 

It is not enough to furnish a display that will 
sell more goods — it must be a display of such char- 
acter that it will have the greatest likelihood of 
being used by the largest number of dealers. 



Common 
Objections 
to Displays 



WORK ON A NEW BASIS 



49 



h 



Too Selfish 
Viewpoint 



CHAPTER IX 

MANUFACTURERS SHOULD WORK ON A NEW BASIS 

MANY manufacturers— when left to them- 
selves—design displays not with a view 
to getting the largest amount of cooper- 
ation from dealers, but for one of two motives: 

1. Desire to get biggest possible name display in 

dealer's window. 

2. Desire to get large number of sales from dis- 

play. 

It is the wrong way to plan a display because it 
is too one-sided and does not take into account the 
dealer. The dealer is satisfied to come in for in- 
creased sales, but it is not surprising that dealers 
object to so-called ** dealer cooperation" when 
the new handsome window display comes out of its 
wrappings— just a billboard for the manufacturer, 
not a display that helps the dealer. 

A billboard is a splendid medium. 

And it is true that any window has always a 
certain billboard value— both for pedestrians and 

48 



for wheel traffic — ^but don't make the mistake of 
forgetting you are under a gentleman's agreement 
with Mr. Dealer not to abuse the hospitality of his 
store and window. And don't forget, if he doesn't 
like your display he will throw it out. 

A billboard's all right — so's a bull — but not in a 
china store. 

We must learn to put into store display the same 
careful thought and analysis that is given to page 
space advertising. Dominate — but do it artisti- 
cally. Scale it up relatively and you will not only 
get all the effect of size you seek for your package 
or trade mark, but with it that suggestion of fitness 
which is so lacking when poorly executed giant 
packages and coarse name display are set up in the 
dealer's store or window without regard to any- 
thing but size. Giant reproductions have their 
uses, but they must be attractive. Psychology 
teaches that when certain things — for example, a 
human hand, or foot, etc. — are unduly enlarged and 
brought too close to the eye, the effect is not im- 
pressive, but repulsive. So look out for these 
barbaric effects in planning dealer-display ma- 
terial. There must be more than size to recom- 
mend it. Bigness without distinctiveness is crude. 



Mistaking 
Size for 
Domination 



50 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



The First 
Object of 
Display 



Dealers Not 
Antagonistic 
to Manufac- 
txirers' 
Displays 



Instead of planning a display with the two ob- 
jectives of (1) Trade Mark dominance and (2) 
Sales, start first with the determination to produce 
a display which will satisfy the largest 'possible num- 
ber of dealers. 

Put that down as your first objective. 

It is the corner-stone in building Dealer Co- 
operation. It is the very first thing every manu- 
facturer should know about Dealer Display. To 
know in advance what kind of display your dealers 
of a certain type can use is a matter of experience 
or special investigation. If you haven't the ex- 
perience you should call in an expert. Guess-work 
is no longer excusable. Granting the display is 
practical and possible for the majority of dealers, 
you must then furnish them with as many as possi- 
ble reasons for using it. Then you have a real 
chance at dealer cooperation. 

Remember, all of your objectives are not nec- 
essarily the dealer's objectives. However, both 
manufacturer and dealer have a common desire to 
increase sales. 

Dealers place a high value on display material 
adapted for use in their own store. This is shown 
by the answers of retail storekeepers to the ques- 



WORK ON A NEW BASIS 



51 



i 



876% OF 

DEALERS 

SAID STORE 

MATERIAL 

WAS THE 
BEST ADVERTIS- 
ING THE MANU- 
FACTURER COULD, 
OO. 



tion " What kind of advertising can a manufacturer 
do for you that will be most effective in increasing 
sales?'' 

This question was put impartially to 3,338 
dealers. The following presents their attitude 
clearly : 

2,899 dealers or 87.6 per cent, valued store ma- 
terial highest. 

327 " " 9.4 " " valued general 

publicity highest. 

112 " " 3. " " would not say. 



3,338 



100.0 per cent. 






Dealer 

"Knows 
What He 
Sees" 



52 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Some advertisers may doubt the truth of this 
statement, or they may feel that a dealer can be 
made to say anything. But this attitude of the 
dealer has been checked carefully and impartially. 
Results have always been substantially the same. 
If any advertiser questions the fact, the thing to 
do is not to challenge the statement that the vast 
majority of dealers overwhelmingly prefer localized 
advertising, and their first choice is store display, 
but to make individual investigation and investi- 
gate carefully before drawing any final conclusions. 
The fact is surprising only because manufacturers 
have failed to see the situation through the dealer's 
eyes. Put yourself in his place. 

The advertising which impresses the dealer is 
the advertising which he himself sees. One bill- 
board in his own locality impresses him more than 
the assurance of a hundred scattered elsewhere; 
a car-card on a line which transports him person- 
ally back and forth has more dealer persuasion 
than all the cars in the community; the advertise- 
ment which he himself sees in his daily paper or 
home magazines has more subtle weight of argu- 
ment than a whole schedule of advertisements 
which he will never experience personally. 



WORK ON A NEW BASIS 



53 



In other words, the dealer being an average hu- 
man, just goes along like the rest of us and knows 
what he sees. 

The dealer knows what you are doing for dealers 
when he receives a valuable display for use in his 
own store. 

Get the dealer's point of view. The dealer 
doesn't think of his store as "backing up" your 
national advertising — and why should he f His 
desire is that you advertise in some way which will 
help him individually. 

The only "circulation" the dealer cares about is 
that fraction of it which the Audit Bureau credits 
to his own locality. He does value any form 
of advertising which reaches the "circulation" 
which surges back and forth in front of his own 
store. 

In substance — display draws attention to his 
goods and sells them. He doesn't care two straws 
about the advertising end except as it results in 
sales for him individually. It's the sales created 
by display that make displays appeal to dealers. 

Some of the reasons which retail storekeepers 
give for favoring displays above other forms of ad- 
vertising are as follows: 



"Circula- 
tion" Which 
Interests 
Dealers 



54 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



New Basis 
for Manu- 
facturer 



"Advertising displays bring people into my 
store." 

"They get in touch with my own trade." 

"Bring me immediate results." 

"Help me in showing off goods." 

"Help to show the class of goods I handle." 

" Call attention to articles you can't always dis- 
play." 

"Suggest what to buy." 

Therefore, the right way to plan a dis- 
play for the largest possible number of dealers 
is from the viewpoint exj)ressed in the 

above. 

Brush away all those old-time ideas about how 
to plan a dealer display and start on the modem 
basis : 

Ask yourself 

1. What kind of display will bring people inside 

the store for that dealer? 

2. What will help him in showing off the goods 

with least trimming effort? 

3. What kind of display will best convey the 

general class of goods he handles? 

4. What will make strongest suggestion appeal 

for consumer to buy? 



WHAT IS THE PeflLERS OWN PRepeRCNCe 
IN THE MflTTER Of flDVERTISINQ ? 




Grocery store sales depend largely on the 
gfK)ds displayed in the store and window 



The hardware mer- 
chant knows it is 
easier to sell what he 
tiisplays 



DRUG STOReS 



Every druggist understands the necessity of 
displaying his goods and extolling their uses 




HflRPWflRe STOReS 
CHART SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATION OF MORE THAN 3,000 DEALERS 



54 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



>i4 



New Basis 
for Manu- 
facturer 



I 



"Advertising displays bring people into my 

store." 
"They get in touch with my own trade." 
"Bring me immediate results." 
"Help me in showing off goods." 
"Help to show the class of goods I handle." 
" Call attention to articles you can't always dis- 

play." 

"Suggest what to buy." 

Therefore, the right way to plan a dis- 
play for the largest possible number of dealers 
is from the viewpoint expressed in the 
above. 

Brush away all those old-time ideas about how 
to plan a dealer display and start on the modern 
basis : 

Ask yourself 

1. What kind of display will bring people inside 

the store for that dealer.'* 

2. What will help him in showing off the goods 

with least trimming effort .^^ 

3. W^hat kind of display will best convey the 

general class of goods he handles.'^ 

4. What will make strongest suggestion appeal 

for consumer to buy? 



WHAT IS THE DEALERS OWN PREFERENCE 
IN THE MATTER Of flDV/ERTISING ? 




Grocery store sales depend largely on the 
goods displayed in the store and window 



GROCeRY STORtS 



The hardware mer- 
chant knows it is 
easier to sell what he 
displays 



Every drnggisf understands the necessity of 
thsjjlaying his goods and extolling their uses 




HflRPWflRe STORCS 

CHART SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATION OF MORE THAN 3,()()() DEALERS 



WHAT IS THE DCflLeRS OWN PREFCRCNCe 
IN THE MATTER OF ADVERTISING ? 



WORK ON A NEW BASIS 



65 




In the clothing store goods properly displayed 
are half sold • 



HflBeRPflSHCRY STORES 




The progressive 
dry goods merchant 
knows that a large 
part of his rent is paid 
for display space 



CONFeCTIONeRY sTORes 



Most confections bought are bought through 
appeals to the eye — i. e. attractive packages, 
wrappers which are invariably displayed 




DRY GOODS STORES 
CHART SUMMARY OF IN\'ESTIGAT10N OF MORE THAN 3,000 DEALERS 



Then you'll have something for yourself and 
your dealers. 

Summed up — think of the dealer's convenience, 
think of his pride in his store, and think of the 
actual sales the display is likely to make for him. 



WHAT IS THE DCflLeRS OWN PREFeReWCe 
IN THE MflTTCR OF flDV/CRTISING ? 



WORK ON A NEW BASIS 



55 




In the clothing store gomls i)roi)(Tly <lis|)l;iye(l 
lire liiilf sold • 



HflBeRPflSHERY ST0R€5 




The progressive 
dry go<)(is merchant 
knows that a large 
part of his rent is paid 
for display space 



CONFeCTIONeRY STOReS 



Most confections honght arel>onght through 
appeals to the eye— i. e. attractive packages, 
wrappers which are invariably displayetl 




DRV GOODS STORES 
CHART SUMMARY OF IXVESTIGATION OF MORE THAX 3,000 DP:aLERS 



Then you'll have something for yourself and 
your dealers. 

Summed up — think of the dealer's convenience, 
think of his pride in his store, and think of the 
actual sales the display is likely to make for him. 



t 



All Science 
a Slow 
Growth 



CHAPTER X 

MISTAKES OF THE PAST— HOW TO CORRECT THEM 

WHEN you realize that display in stores 
is something more than a gratuitous ac- 
cessory to marketing your merchandise, 
then for the first time you perceive that it has its 
own unique functions. 

When you admit that it has its separate and dis- 
tinct part in making the machinery of distribution 
work, then you see the necessity of studying its 
laws of operation. 

And you begin to appreciate that its hit-and- 
miss use in the past was a matter of neglect to com- 
prehend the real problem. 

But be patient! Remember that Advertising as 
a science was not built up in a day. Its different 
mediums have all had to be first recognized as such 
and then organized for operation. Dealer space 
at its worst has never been more chaotic than was 
periodical space when first the early agents set 
themselves the task of organization ! In all proba- 

56 



MISTAKES OF THE PAST 



57 



bility the first attempt ever made to find out just 
what advertisers were doing with dealer display 
was an investigation conducted for the writer in 
1914 through a certain research organization, call- 
ing on the 300 largest advertisers of the country. 

It was evident from this investigation that the 
leading American Advertisers believed strongly in 
the value of dealer helps and window display, some 
indeed considering them a necessity. But few of 
these had amj actual data to go by or kept any check 
on the funds expended on this branch of promotion 
work. 

The one great appalling fact was that Adver- 
tisers at that time did not know what definite plan 
to follow; or what results were forthcoming from 
the display plans they were following. For in- 
stance, they did not know how much of their ma- 
terial was reaching the dealer or being utilized by 
the dealer, or how dealers felt toward their dis- 
plays, or what results dealers secured from displays. 

At the same time the general feeling was strongly 
in favor of dealer displays as an adjunct to other 
advertising and more than half of these leading ad- 
vertisers were every year increasing their appropri- 
ations along this line. More than a quarter of 



Recent 
Develop- 
ment of 
Display 
Science 



58 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Former 
Status of 
Display 
Among 
Advertisers 



those interviewed, and they were all leading na- 
tional advertisers, stated they were spending one 
fifth or more of their entire appropriation for dealer 
helps or display. 

To sum it up, this investigation showed that 
even so short a time ago as 1914 the biggest Na- 
tional Advertisers in this country (which means 
in the world) had the following composite attitude 
toward dealer display: 

1. Display promotion was not recognized as an 

integral part of the advertising campaign, 
but the desirability of dealer cooperation 
was recognized. 

2. Material was supplied for dealers by all but 

11 per cent, of these National Advertisers. 
But no records were kept beyond shipping 
of material, usually to a jobber destination. 

3. Displays were usually worked out by the 

Advertising Manager, usually independ- 
dently but sometimes with agency 
cooperation. (At the time there were no 
recognized display specialists in existence, 
"window trimming" was the only display 
art known.) 



MISTAKES OF THE PAST 



59 



4. No appropriations were made especially for 

dealer display — it was just one of the 
etceteras charged up to advertising. 

5. Salesmen were left to cooperate at their own 

option. 



In a few cases, traveling "trimming crews" were 
being utilized for the handling and installing of the 
manufacturer's displays, but this practice was 
necessarily confined to a very few products which 
have very wide distribution, which alone would 
justify this expense. In a few other cases, all con- 
fined to specialty grocery products, the salesmen or 
missionary men calling direct on the trade had as 
a recognized part of their duties the placing of small 
unit displays. But either of these definite plans was 
exceptional among the then National Advertisers. 

Meanwhile, the writer's own associates, estab- 
lished in the ten largest manufacturing points of 
this country, were in constant touch with America's 
largest producers of branded products — both 
advertisers and non-advertisers. Year by year it 
was noticeable that more and more monev was 
being expended in the channel of dealer material 
of all kinds, and that a spirit of rivalry had entered 



Checking 
Up the 
Situation 



i 



60 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



New Code 
of Display 
Practice 



into competition for the dealer's cooperation and 
many manufacturers were going to extravagant 
lengths to secure this coveted cooperation. Huge, 
unwieldy displays, some weighing as much as ten 
or twelve pounds and costing several dollars each, 
were being furnished to dealers. But even with 
this large investment we found that few indeed 
were planned with any definite idea of distribution. 
As a consequence, in many cases the displays were 
not forwarded to the trade and were merely occupy- 
ing space in the manufacturer's own stockroom ! 

Out of all this mass of investigative data it was 
possible to trace cause and effect and step by step 
build up some tentative laws for the use of dealer 
display as a medium. 

Out of the body of negative findings — what 
manufacturers didn't do and what dealers wouldn't 
do — and often what they couldn't do — ^it was pos- 
sible to construct certain positives. 

Out of all this grew what might be called the 
first real Code of Dealer Display, as follows: 

1. Your display for dealers must be an integral 

part of your Advertising campaign. 

2. You miLst plan for a method of distribution 



MISTAKES OF THE PAST 



61 



which actually places the display in the 
hands of the dealer. 

3. The display must be the result of experience 

in handling a large number of successful dis- 
play campaigns — i. e., it must be designed 
by or submitted for approval of experts. 

4. Displays must be recognized as a definite part 

of the advertising investment, and provision 
made for them in the budget or appropria- 
tion. 

5. Salesmen must not be left to their own initia- 

tive in use of display but its purpose and 
function explained to them and a method 
worked out for their better cooperation 
with display material. 

There is nothing very startling about this code 
to-day— it may sound entirely matter of fact and 
sensible to you*. 

If so it is because you have become vastly en- 
lightened since the years 1913-14— for pages 58 and 
59 shows in summary the then common practice 
among the leading advertisers of the country. 

An enormous change has come since 1914 in the 
practical handling of Dealer-Display problems. 






Hit-and- 
miss 
Practice 



CHAPTER XI 

DISTRIBUTION OF WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

MATERIAL 

j4 SSUMING now that the display is fit to go 

/% in the dealer's windows — (that you, for 
-Z jL instance, would wish to have it in your 
window if you were the dealer) — you are free to 
east about for the best practical plans for getting 
the display distributed where it will be used most 
widely and most effectively. 

Incidental and accidental display should no 
longer be tolerated by scientific management — 
any more than a manufacturer would be satisfied 
to dispatch his merchandise shipments to their 
destination and never find out whether or not they 
actually arrived. When you buy display material 
it surely is not for the purpose of filling your ware- 
house. 

A display is not a display until it takes its place 
in the dealer's window. 

Neither is it enough to send displays out, hit 

62 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 63 

or miss, on the chance of their being utilized. In 
reality, this promiscuous sending is the most waste- 
ful of all methods. 

One individual display in one dealer's window 
doesn't affect the advertiser much, however pro- 
ductive it is for that dealer. What you want and 
must have is multiplicity of showings — ^i. e., mass 
cooperation and volume of windows. 

What are the best methods, therefore, to secure 
mass cooperation.? 

Crew installations are not practical for the large 
majority of manufacturers, on account of expense 
and scattered distribution. We come to four main 
methods of handling this problem of display co- 
operation : 

1. Paying for Cooperation (either by outright 

payment, free goods, or special deals). 

2. Prize Contests. 

3. Featuring Specific Display in National Ad- 

vertising. 

4. Part of Selling Plan, including: Proper pres- 
entation to the dealer— Folders, letters, etc., to 
dealer, announcing the coming of display— Feature 
the display before or when sent out, instead of 
throwing it at the dealer. 



Not One 

but Many 
Needed 



Four 

Methods of 
Cooperation 



i 



64 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Let us examine each of these in turn: 

(1) Paying for Dealer Cooperation should be 
ehminated at the start, from our point of view- 
first, because it is wrong in principle, and, second, 
it does not pay. 

(2) Prize contests probably pay in dealer inter- 
est and have some news value. They give sales- 
men something different to talk about, hence are 
useful in staple products or those without their 
own striking talking points. They also induce 
many displays that never enter the contest. This 
method pays indirectly in its by-products though 
seldom in actual bona fide entries of contestants. 

(3) Featuring specific displays in the manufac- 
turer's national advertising (trade papers, maga- 
zines, etc.) is of course a good plan where the 
campaign exists and the manufacturer has bona 
fide distribution to justify— but even this is 
really begging the question of display cooperation 
for its own sake and is not the purpose of the 
present discussion. One successful method of 
featuring displays has been on the basis of a 
national week such as Canned Goods Week, Coffee 
Week, etc. 



H 



( 







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SI 

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III 
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64 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Let us examine each of these in turn : 

(1) Paying for Dealer Cooperation should be 
eliminated at the start, from our point of view — 
first, because it is wrong in principle, and, second, 
it does not pay. 

(2) Prize contests probably pay in dealer inter- 
est and have some news value. They give sales- 
men something different to talk about, hence are 
useful in staple products or those without their 
own striking talking points. They also induce 
many displays that never enter the contest. This 
method pays indirectly in its by-products though 
seldom in actual bona fide entries of contestants. 

(3) Featuring specific displays in the manufac- 
turer's national advertising (trade papers, maga- 
zines, etc.) is of course a good plan where the 
campaign exists and the manufacturer has bona 
fide distribution to justify— but even this is 
really begging the question of display cooperation 
for its own sake and is not the purpose of the 
present discussion. One successful method of 
featuring displays has been on the basis of a 
national week such as Canned Goods Week, Coffee 
Week, etc. 






" 




S3 



I— i 













! •; 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 65 

(4) This brings us down to the fourth and most 
practical method of securing dealer cooperation — 
namely, making display an integral part of the 
Selling Plan. 

This display must not be left as optional or acci- 
dental, but standardized, not only in itself, but in 
the method of presentation to the dealer, whether 

(1) By means of house's salesmen. 

(2) By means of jobber's salesmen. 

(3) By means of house campaign to dealers, 

featuring display. 



The reason Chain Stores have worked so success- 
fully is because they exemplify the principle of 
standardization of selling method, a carefully for- 
mulated and completely worked out selling plan. 
Nor is this selling plan left optional with any mem- 
ber of the Chain — it is the plan. 

The reason Exclusive Agency argument has a 
lure for many dealers is because the dealer recog- 
nizes in it a fundamental selling plan and sees very 
definitely his individual part in it. 

The reason there has been so much uncertainty 
about dealer cooperation from the rank and file 



Adopt 

Definite 

Plan 



Salesman's 
Part in 
Plan 



66 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

in the plan of multiple dealer distribution has been 
because there was no plan which definitely tied up 
the individual store with the rest of the program. 

One reason manufacturers' salesmen have so 
often failed to cooperate in the successful distribu- 
tion of displays is because they were merely asked 
to do it, or exhorted to do it, or petitioned to do it 

instead of being shown wherein it would benefit 

them — what they would get out of it. 

If a salesman only knows that the house is adver- 
tising, and doesn't know when, where, what, and 
wherefore, it is evident that the advertising after 
all is not a part of the selling plan. 

If a salesman knows something about advertising 
schedules and mediums and knows the function and 
the possibilities of the dealer-display material, he 
surely will include display material as an integral 
part of his proposition to the dealer. 

A salesman who isn't thoroughly "sold on the 
house's advertising" has usually a pretty good 
alibi— there's evidently something loose-jointed in 
his instructions and sales equipment or he would 
know the selling plan. 

Modern marketing and merchandising calls for 
dealer-display cooperation as a definite part of the 




Salesman's 
Part in 
Plan 



66 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

in the plan of mulliple dealer distribution has been 
because there was no plan which definitely tied up 
the individual store with the rest of the program. 

One reason manufacturers' salesmen have so 
often failed to cooperate in the successful distribu- 
tion of displays is because they were merely asked 
to do it, or exhorted to do it, or petitioned to do it 

instead of being shown wherein it would benefit 

them— what they would get out of it. 

If a salesman only knows that the house is adver- 
tising, and doesn't know when, where, what, and 
wherefore, it is evident that the advertising after 
all is not a part of the selling plan. 

If a salesman knows something about advertising 
schedules and mediums and knows the function and 
the possibilities of the dealer-display material, he 
surely will include display material as an integral 
part of his proposition to the dealer. 

A salesman who isn't thoroughly "sold on the 
house's advertising" has usually a pretty good 
alibi— there's evidently something loose-jointed in 
his instructions and sales equipment or he would 
know the selling plan. 

Modern marketing and merchandising calls for 
dealer-display cooperation as a definite part of the 













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^ 



Jl 






< 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 67 




z 






o 

EC 

n 

■XI 



I— I 

K 



selling plan which must be presented as such by the 
salesman to the dealer, and provision should be 
made for the dealer to secure his display equipment 
—not as something optional but as one standard 
factor in the sales plan. 

Instead of being an additional detail for the man 
with the sample case to be plagued with, the dis- 
play is a real boon. It is a provable fact that any 
sales presentation, no matter how clever and effec- 
tive, can be made immensely more coherent, logical, 
and impressive to the dealer if into the warp and 
woof of this presentation is woven the golden thread 
of a specific display selling 'plan. 

The best way to insure salesmen talking to deal- 
ers about the general advertising and display is to 
so plan that it is both easy and necessary for the 
salesman to talk about both in his selling canvas. 
Arrange so that it forms a part of his equipment, 
a part of his selling tools. This requires tact and 
good judgment, but it can be done in practically all 
cases. 

Plans for distribution and displays must include, 
therefore : 

^Selling the house (or jobber) salesman on dis- 
play. 



Not a 
Burden on 
Salesman 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 67 







r 
v. 



x 



selling plan which must be presented as such by the 
salesman to the dealer, and provision should be 
made for the dealer to secure his display equipment 
—not as something optional but as one standard 
factor in the sales plan. 

Instead of being an additional detail for the man 
with the sample case to be plagued with, the dis- 
play is a real boon. It is a provable fact that any 
sales presentation, no matter how clever and effec- 
tive, can be made immensely more coherent, logical, 
and impressive to the dealer if into the warp and 
woof of this presentation is woven the golden thread 
of a specific display selling j)lan. 

The best way to insure salesmen talking to deal- 
ers about the general advertising and display is to 
so plan that it is both easy and necessary for the 
salesman to talk about both in his selling canvas. 
Arrange so that it forms a part of his equipment, 
a part of his selling tools. This requires tact and 
good judgment, but it can be done in practically all 
cases. 

Plans for distribution and displays must include, 
therefore : 

—Selling the house (or jobber) salesman on dis- 
play. 



Not a 
Burden on 
Salesman 



68 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Fit Plan to 

Specific 

Needs 



— Selling the dealer on its value to him individ- 
ually by means of salesman's talk or through 
letters or folders, picturing the display. 

— ^Delivering it in timely season, accompanied by 
vivid reminder of its specific use and pur- 
pose. 

The particular details must of course be worked 
out specifically to fit the conditions governing the 
particular display — not some conditions but all 
conditions, for instance: 

Distribution plan must be adjusted to fit 

(1) The Advertising Campaign. 

(2) The Method of Marketing. 

(3) The Attitude of Dealers. 

(4) The Extent and Location of Distribution 

and Competitive Conditions. 

This has proved to be a practical way to distrib- 
ute display material effectively. 

Sending display material out promiscuously 
is not distributing it— it merely gets rid of the 

material. 

Waste is seldom wanton destruction. 
It comes from ignorance of true value. 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 69 



It is easier to see a criticism when it isn't directed 
against our own concern, so let's try this view of it: 
The waste that goes on in a housewife's kitchen 
isn't vicious destructiveness or contrariness or lack 
of interest — it's pure childlike ignorance of what is 
really being lost down the kitchen sink and the 
garbage can. 

In the same way the waste (of good displays) 
which goes on in the retail store isn't viciousness or 
contrariness or even laziness on the part of the un- 
cooperating dealer, but is due to the fact that his 
eyes have not been opened by you. 

Clamorous dealer exhortation or wild denuncia- 
tion in advertising conventions won't correct the 
condition, because this vehemence excites op- 
position. It's combative, not cooperative. But 
silently, bit by bit, tighten up the connection in- 
herently between your own display units and every 
other link in your sales campaign by making it all 
an integral selling plan, and automatically you 
insure this cooperation. Just as the domestic sci- 
ence teacher says to the housewife — 



Waste 

Through 

Ignorance 



Call Display 
by Its Right 
Name 



"This isn't the milk waste from yesterday, it's 
the sour milk needed for to-day's gingerbread. 



70 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 




METHODS OF DISTRIBUTING DISPLAYS TO DEALERS 



DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLAY MATERIAL 71 

"This isn't the dripping grease to be scraped 
out into the garbage — it's the shortening or fry- 
ing fat you are needing every day." 

Thus to the dealer you say — This isn't something 
we thought you'd just as Hef have hanging around 
somewhere (for the free advertising we might get 
out of it) but it's the 

one and only 

definite 

connecting 

link 

between you individually and all those thousands 
or tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands we 
have put into advertising Our Brand to help you. 



Life of 

Display 

Material 



CHAPTER XII 

WHAT DETERMINES THE "LIFE" OF DISPLAY? 

A FTER the display has secured space from 
/\ the dealer the question of most interest to 
-A. M. the manufacturer is "How long will it 
last?" 

The answer to that question — like so many dis- 
play questions— isn't really up to the dealer at all 
but comes right back to the manufacturer who 
furnished the display. 

It is answered — not in the dealer's store — but 
when the display was planned. 

Generally speaking, the life of a display depends 
on three things: 

1. The general idea and appearance of the dis- 

play; 

2. The physical make-up, strength, construction, 

etc., of the display; 

3. The degree to which the dealer has been 

"sold" on its value to him. 

74 



THE "LIFE" OF DISPLAY 



73 



If a display continues to make sales for the 
dealer it will be used as long as it keeps in usable 
condition. 

In other words, if the display itself is right, and 
does actually attract attention, create sales, and 
please the dealer, its life is indefinitely prolonged. 

A cardboard display, attractive in itself, properly 
constructed so that it does not collapse or become 
broken through ordinary handling, and provided 
the colors do not fade out so that it becomes an 
eye-sore, should easily last through an ordinary sell- 
ing season. Attractive material is often given 
other space on ledge or wall or counter after it 
comes from the window. 

A display should be planned with full knowledge 
of the chances for its use throughout a selling sea- 
son. It should then be built to survive that selling 
period, whatever it may be. 

The life of a display in a dealer's window aver- 
ages about two weeks, an extra good display will be 
shown two to four weeks. If the selling season is 
continuous, the display should be so planned that 
some part of it is adapted for use inside the store 
after the initial use in the window. 

Some of the most valuable results of window 



Surviving 
the Selling 
Season 



Term in 
Window 



opportunity 
for Repeat 
Showing 



II 



I 



I 



Construct 
for Service 
Intended 



74 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

advertising are cumulative, and this is particularly 
true of a repeat consumption product, or one 
whose season continues through several months. 
There is an untold amount of business going to 
waste from folks who intend to do a certain thing 
but never quite get around to it. Take pencil and 
paper and jot down for yourself the many things 
you have been meaning to buy — this long, long 
time. 

On the other hand, in the case of paper material, 
you do not expect long life. It is designed for 
temporary use only. But even paper window dis- 
plays easily average a full week of life in dealers' 
windows. 

For instance — a display stand on the counter 
must be built for use as well as ornament. A store 
counter is a busy ground, not a protected grand 
stand. The display which holds its place is the 
one that keeps trim and tidy and never becomes a 
nuisance or upsets. The average clerk soon loses 
patience with a top-heavy stand that's always 
"throwing" the goods onto the counter. A 
counter display which is too tall so that clerk and 
customer have to play hide and seek over and 
around it is the pet abomination of the dealer and 



ii^ 



THE "LIFE*' OF DISPLAY 



75 



clerk, and sooner or later it will be swept off the 
counter. 






Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 

Fig. 1 illustrates poor construction, as the weight 
and extreme height of product will tend to upset 
the stand. Fig. 2 shows better construction, the 
weight resting on bottom and the tall bottle being 
held firmly in place by the sloping base. 

Fig. 3 shows top-heavy construction, the package 
being so high as to cause the whole display to bend 
by its weight, this shortening the life of the dis- 
play. Fault can be overcome by placing package 
lower down where it will be supported by the easel 
on back. Or if this dominating layout is to be 
retained, it can be made practical by using an extra 
tall easel or by using dummy package in place of 
actual package. These two methods would add 
to the expense of the display. If this is an ob- 



76 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 








Examples of cutout showing top-heavy construction, making dis- 
play impractical and shortening its life at the dealer's 

jection the only other alternative is to reproduce 
the package in the design, instead of using actual 
package. 

Large display units, such as cutouts, screen 
panels, etc., should always be built with due regard 
to the length of time on duty. If for long hfe, it is 
necessary to reinforce such displays, or to plan 
them in such way that the natural grain of the 
cardboard will be a help and not a hindrance. For 
material which is wanted for long life, there are in- 
genious methods of construction which cunningly 
strengthen the board where it is naturally weak. 
Cardboard has its laws as have all raw materials. 



CHAPTER XIII 



COUNTER SPACE— AND HOW TO COMMAND IT 

COUNTER space is always at a premium 
because of its strategic value in the 
store. Who was it— Archimides? — who 
said he could lift the world— provided he could 
find a spot on which to rest the end of his 
lever? 

Anyway, he pictures exactly what you can do in 
the way of lifting your sales — if you can get just the 
right toe-hold on the dealer's counter. 

Just one little spot is all the ancient physicist 
wanted — and the modern sales engineer asks for 
only a few square inches on the counter, well know- 
ing that this space is often the most valuable in the 
whole store. 

Goods which deserve counter space — ^bearing 
in mind that we must always take the dealer view- 
point in all these matters — fall into the following 
main divisions: 

77 



II 



Getting 
Leverage 
for Sales 



1 



Analysis of 

Counter 

Merchandise 



78 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

1. Merchandise which the dealer has some strong 

incentive to push, such as overstock, slow 
sellers, etc. 

2. Merchandise with extra long profit. 

3. Merchandise which is newly received, novel, 

unusually attractive, or otherwise has ex- 
hibition value or as the merchant says 
"makes a nice showing." 

4. Merchandise which is in universal demand, 

but small in size so that the merchant keeps 
a regular stock on counter to save steps and 
time in handling customers. 

5. Merchandise which is highly suggestive, but is 

bought mainly on impulse rather than sober 
calculation and deliberate errand. 

6. Merchandise out of the usual line associated 

with the store — candy in cigar stores, foun- 
tain pens in drug stores, poultry remedies 
in hardware stores, coffee percolators in 
groceries, hairnets in drug stores, etc. 

If your goods have this inherent self-interest ap- 
peal they can easily command counter space. 

If you want your goods on the dealer's counter, 
study the proposition from this angle. Furnish 



COUNTER SPACE 



79 



some obvious appeal of self-interest and the dealer 
puts your goods on the counter because youVe 

earned it. 
YouVe got your solid foothold— a fulcrum for 

leverage of sales. 

Now take a look at the above classification again 
and check up your product from the points of view 
of Nos. 3, 4, and 5. 

Thus: 

3. If your product isn't novel or unusually at- 

tractive you can make it so by the proper 
dressing up or display setting. Even the 
ugly ducklings in the great advertising 
family (and there are some homely birds 
among them) can be most intriguingly dis- 
played by means of an ingenious display 
stand, and the display expert who knows 
his business can make even a commonplace 
looking product engagingly attractive. 

4. If your product is not universally known by 

Brand, but is a commodity (small in size) 
which can be logically offered to a large 
proportion of the community, you can pro- 



Clever 
Display 
Overcomes 
Handicaps 



80 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Counter 
Way Is the 
Modern 
Way 



cure counter preference for it if you devise 
the right kind of display container which 
will be a convenience as well as a sales- 
maker for the dealer. 
5. If your product can be displayed and also 
pictured in use, such a picture will prove 
highly suggestive, because it starts a train 
of thought in the mind of the chance cus- 
tomer and results in purchase on impulse. 
This No. 5 classification covers the large major- 
ity of products capable of being shown on a dealer's 
counter. Most sales — indeed all sales — depend 
on a picture in the mind of the buyer, conjured 
up by some stimulus, whether the sight of the goods 
or the reminder of the product or some work of the 
sales clerk. But this picture in the mind precedes 
every purchase. The human imagination is the 
greatest salesman in the world— a truly wonderful 

"closer." 

Counter space selling is the great merchandising 
principle which Retailing has learned from those 
two greatest modern institutions — the Depart- 
ment Store and Chain Store. Instead of a ware- 
house the retail store is a display place for mer- 
chandise. 



LiV 



COUNTER SPACE 



81 



Counter merchandising is based on the old adage 
— Well displayed is half sold. 

How successful this principle is can be appreci- 
ated when you consider that even though there is 
occasional loss from theft, this objection is out- 
weighed by sheer force of increasing volume of sales ! 

To prove this to your own satisfaction, ask ten 
dealers who have displayed merchandise on display 
stands or in containers or on the counter without a 
display device, if they have experienced any loss 
through theft. They will invariably say yes. 
They also will admit by word as well as act (con- 
tinuing to display merchandise on counters), that 
the profits from increased sales far outweigh the 
loss. If the loss from theft were great the Wool- 
worth Building could never have been erected. 
On the other hand, the value of counter display is 
clearly demonstrated in the success of the 5 and 
10 cent Stores which are all counter. Occasion- 
ally dealers may complain about theft, but manu- 
facturers should not be blinded or mislead by such 
complaint. One 10-cent package taken from his 
counter will remain in a dealer's memory a long 
time. But question him further and he will tell 
you that he has sold dozens by reason of his 



IJI 



Theft Is 

Negligible 

Factor 



82 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



1 



f 



Counter 
Sales Are 
Quick Sales 



display on the counter, which he would not have 
sold if the goods were out of sight, on the shelf or 
under the counter. He will tell you that in spite of 
the very small amount of stealing he would not 
under any circumstances consider putting his mer- 
chandise under cover. 

Grocers, bakers, and candy stores have always 
worked on the principle of counter merchandising, 
because their stocks are perishable and must sell 
quickly or not at all. 

All food products are particularly responsive to 
display — not only for the appetite appeal, but in 
the case of bakery and grocery goods the housewife 
is naturally looking for suggestions when market- 
ing for the family table. Her mind is open and 
receptive to new desserts, or a tasty salad dressing, 
etc., etc. Moreover, the grocer is a hard-working 
individual, with not much time, and the counter 
way is the quickest way of merchandising. 

We might even go so far as to say that in the 
case of grocery stores the counter is of more impor- 
tance than the window. Don't forget that yours is 
but one of many hundreds of products or even one 
of a thousand sold regularly by that dealer. You 
must get your product into view on the counter and 




CD 
H 

M 

O 
O 
P 

P 

W 
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a: 

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a 
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82 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Counter 
Sales Are 
Quick Sales 



display on the counter, which he would not have 
sold if the <?oods were out of sight, on the shelf or 
under the counter. He will tell you that in spite of 
the very small amount of stealing he would not 
under any circumstances consider putting his mer- 
chandise under cover. 

Grocers, bakers, and candy stores have always 
w^orked on the principle of counter merchandising, 
because their stocks are perishable and must sell 
quickly or not at all. 

All food products are particularly responsive to 
display — not only for the appetite appeal, but in 
the case of bakery and grocery goods the housewife 
is naturally looking for suggestions when market- 
ing for the family table. Her mind is open and 
receptive to new^ desserts, or a tasty salad dressing, 
etc., etc. Moreover, the grocer is a hard-working 
individual, with not much time, and the counter 
way is the quickest way of merchandising. 

AYe might even go so far as to say that in the 
case of grocery stores the counter is of more impor- 
tance than the window. Don't forget that yours is 
but one of many hundreds of products or even one 
of a thousand sold regularly by that dealer. You 
must get your product into view^ on the counter and 







O 
P 



•/. 



y. 



r. 



s. 



y. 




COUNTER SPACE 



83 



H 

o 

-%* 

O 

K 

H 
H 

o 

H 

u 



< 

O 



off the shelf. You've got to command the counter 
by some factor of superiority. 

In the drugstore, display material should be in 
the window and on the counter because of many 
competing articles sold in that store. The average 
druggist will carry a dozen or more well-known and 
well-advertised tooth pastes or shaving creams and 
so on with hundreds of products sold through the 
drug store. 

You need reminder material on the counter to 
make sure of your sale, when the consumer has 
entered the store. 

The same reasoning prevails with any highly 
competitive product, sold through the same chan- 
nels. 

Counter displays are most naturally for package 
goods or small articles — but not invariably so. 

Counter display may indeed be independent of 
actual merchandise. A well-known stove manufac- 
turer wrote me facetiously that he couldn't very 
well get his stove up on a counter. He had a 
literal mind. You can get a toe-hold for stove 
leverage on a dealer's counter by means of picture 
suggestion— just as you can get it for ice-boxes or 
lawn-mowers. 



Counter 
Display 
Not Always 
Merchandise 
Display 




COUNTER SPACE 



83 



y. 



f. 



o 



r. 
O 
•j: 






y. 



'y 
Pi 









oflF the shelf. You've got to command the counter 
by some factor of superiority. 

In the drugstore, display material should be in 
the window and on the counter because of many 
competing articles sold in that store. The average 
druggist will carry a dozen or more well-known and 
well-advertised tooth pastes or shaving creams and 
so on with hundreds of products sold through the 
drug store. 

You need reminder material on the counter to 
make sure of your sale, when the consumer has 
entered the store. 

The same reasoning prevails with any highly 
competitive product, sold through the same chan- 
nels. 

Counter displays are most naturally for package 
goods or small articles — but not invariably so. 

Counter display may indeed be independent of 
actual merchandise. A well-known stove manufac- 
turer wrote me facetiously that he couldn't very 
w^ell get his stove up on a counter. He had a 
literal mind. You can get a toe-hold for stove 
leverage on a dealer's counter by means of picture 
suggestion — just as you can get it for ice-boxes or 
lawn-mowers. 



Counter 
Display 
Not Always 
Merchandise 
Display 



84 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



I 



It makes me nervous to see a clerk jauntily shove 
a 5 lb. electric iron around on a plateglass showcase. 
I know I wouldn't permit it if I were back of that 
counter — but I would be glad to place 3 oz. of card- 
board where they would exert an overwhelming 
pressure on the prospective who is ready to take 
the initiatory step in the favorite indoor sport of 
equipping American homes with electric appli- 
ances. 

Counter Space is a sound principle of merchan- 
dising — in fact, it is a fundamental principle. 

Just how you must use this principle in applica- 
tion to your own problem is a matter for specific 
inquiry and careful planning. 



CHAPTER XIV 

HOW MUCH DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES f 

* 

IF YOU will ask the average retailer, "Does 
display increase sales?" you will invariably 
receive the definite reply "Yes." But he 
does not know how much of an increase, any more 
than does the average manufacturer. 

He has not kept actual records to find out what 
a given display produced, yet he knows that dis- 
play does increase sales. 

Dealers and manufacturers do not have much 
in the way of definite figures. In one investigation 
covering more than three thousand retail stores of 
all kinds, 90 per cent, stated displays had increased 
sales, but estimates of the average rate of increase 
varied all the way from 25 per cent, to 300 per cent. 

In order to determine what increase in sales 
would result from displays, specific tests have been 
made under my own supervision, all being con- 
ducted in the same way, namely, checking sales 
week by week for an agreed period, without dis- 

85 



Specific 
Tests with 
Display 



86 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



In Drug 

Stores 



play, then installing a given display and again 
checking sales week by week for another identical 
period. A few of these tests will serve for exam- 
ples: 

Drug Store Display Tests: 

I. The product selected was a well-advertised 
tooth paste, and the display used was a 
newly adopted counter display con- 
tainer — 

A sales test was conducted in 20 drug 
stores for 3 weeks before this new dis- 
play container was used, to determine 
the normal sales. A total of 155 tubes 
were sold. 

Then foranother 3 weeks, in these same 
20 drug stores, a sales test was con- 
ducted with the tooth paste displayed 
on the counter. The total sales for 
these 3 weeks were 412 tubes of the 
dental paste. 
Thus, the increase in sales when this dis- 
play was in use was 257 tubes or 165 per 
cent, increase in sales for that product. 
n. The product selected was a medical prepa- 



in. 



DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 87 

ration, an herb tea, the goods being 
by nature "slow sellers." Checking 
first without using any display, a test in 
10 drug stores, for 3 weeks, showed 26 
packages had been called for in the nor- 
mal course of business. 

However, when sales test was made 
with a counter display it proved that 
many persons wanted the product, but 
never just happened to get around 
to inquire for it. A test in these same 
stores for another 3 weeks showed the 
surprising total of 63 packages sold 
over the counter, or a 142 per cent, 
increase in sales. 
Another medical tea was given a similar 
counter test in a different list of stores 
and, of course, a different display. 
First sales were checked in 9 drug stores 
for 3 weeks without any display, and 
the result was only 24 packages sold. 
Then the packages were packed in a 
counter-display container and placed 
on top of the showcase. The result, 
when sales were again checked for 



In Grocery 
Stores 



88 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

another 3 weeks, was 57 packages sold, 
or a toal of 137 per cent, increase in 
sales. 



Grocery Store Display Tests: 

I. The product was an extract, on the market 
for fifty odd years, and known to every 
housewife and enjoying exceptional 
prestige — 

To learn the normal demand a record 
was kept in 14 grocery stores, for 3 
weeks, without any display, and the 
result was 68 sales. Then the very 
same test was conducted with the pro- 
duct placed in a display container 
on the counter in each of these 14 
stores, and sales were watched for 
another 3 weeks. The result this time 
was 154 sales. Here again there was 
no other form of advertising in use at 
this time, and no special sales plan or 
customer inducement. The product 
was a long-established trade staple, 
and yet the mere fact of dealer display 
on the counter caused a jump in de- 



DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 



89 



{ 



mand from 68 to 154 bottles or 126 
per cent, increase. 
II. The product — the largest selling soup in the 
United States — on the market about ten 
years, but heavily advertised and enjoy- 
ing universal distribution — 

When a test was made in 21 grocery 
stores for 3 weeks without any dis- 
play, the sales showed 356 cans per 
week or total 1,068 cans for the 3-week 
period. 

Then the same test was conducted after 
placing an attractive display on each 
grocer's counter. The addition of 
this simple reminder in each of these 
stores created an immediate jump in 
sales, and a 3 -week check showed 
the product was selling at the rate of 
608 cans per week or 1,824 cans total 
for 3 weeks, as against the normal 
sale of 1,068 cans. This for 21 stores 
made an average of 70.8 per cent, in- 
crease in sales. No additional collat- 
eral advertising was in progress during 
any test period. 



r 



1 



In Candy, 
Hardware, 
Haber- 
dasher 
Stores, etc. 



90 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

in. The product was a new kind of soap — ^not 
well advertised and lacking in demand 
or distribution — 

A check on sales for 3 weeks showed 
only a total of 52 packages disposed 
of by the dealers. 

Then, a small unit display was made in 
the same stores (on the counter), and 
the sales for the next 3 weeks nearly 
tripled — showing 153 packages total, 
or an actual increase of 194 per cent, 
in sales. 

Similar tests were made for candy, hardware, 
and haberdasher stores, in each case selecting one 
given product, and following sales for a list of stores 
straight through for 6 weeks — the first 3 weeks 
permitting no display whatever, and the next 3 
weeks arranging in each of the stores a uniform 
display and then comparing sales for the two 
periods. In brief, they showed as follows: 

Dealers' sales without the help of display; First 
3 weeks: 
15 Candy Stores sold total 384 packets of a 
given 5-cent confection 



DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 91 



10 Auto Supply - - 
14 Haberdashers 



- - 72 plugs 

- - 249 men's garters 



Same dealers' sales with help of a specified display; 
Second 3 weeks: 

15 Candy Stores sold total 1,074 packets of 
same 5-cent confection 

10 Auto Supply - - - - 125 plugs 

14 Haberdashers - - - - 581 men's garters 

INCREASE— 

In candy test 180 per cent, increase in sales 

In auto supply 74 " 

In haberdashery 233 " 



a 



<( 



<c 



«« 



« 



cc 



<c 



€€ 



These figures show only averages. Of course the 
individual dealer increases varied greatly, depend- 
ing on individual store conditions. 

Moreover, the tests were all conducted from a 
disinterested, purely investigative standpoint and 
do not show fairly what could be expected of dis- 
play if properly pushed in connection with the whole 
selling and advertising campaign. 

For the purpose of demonstrating the value of 






ii 



When 

Salesman 

Cooperates 



92 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



dealer display when the house salesmen themselves 
lend their earnest cooperation, the following two 
detail tests will no doubt be interesting. 

The first test was conducted by a corps of dis- 
interested investigators to determine the actual 
sales help of a certain display. 

A number of stores were selected and inven- 
tory of stock, as well as record of sales, was taken 
before and after display was used. The stores 
were situated in widely separated localities. 

It was found that total sales in the week be- 
fore the goods were in view of the customer to- 
taled 53 packages. 

In the week during which the display was used, 
the sales ran almost three-fold — 150 packages 
having been sold, a total increase in sales of 
183 per cent. In one instance the increase was 
as large as 500 per cent, over previous sales. 

Verv few dealers seemed to have any definite 
idea as to how much display material increases 
sales. They were very much interested in the test 
and in most instances were willing to cooperate. 

The second test was entirely independent of the 
first, being conducted by the manufacturer of the 









DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 93 

same product through his own sales force to deter- 
mine to what extent display would increase sales 
when used by his own sales people. 

A comparative sales test was conducted in 28 
stores and the results noted in the following were 
taken from exact records of stock and sales fur- 
nished by the manufacturer. 

In one week previous to the display of the ma- 
terial 36 sales of the article were made, whereas 
in the week following the display sales were 297. 
A total increase of 725 per cent! This figure 
does not include the increase in a number of 
stores where percentages of increase could not be 
computed because there were no sales originally. 

Incidentally these two tests — one made by a dis- 
tinctly disinterested group of investigators and the 
other through house salesmen — would indicate 
how advantageously display material can be used 
when the sales force is properly sold on it. 

As bearing on this same question of what definite 
results are traceable to the mere fact of display, the 
following excerpts are quoted from a trade publica- 
tion: 

"A certain large retailer in New York City says 



I 



>f 



Experience 
of Dealers 
with 
Windows 



Merchan- 
dise Sold 
When 
Displayed 



94 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

that from long experience he can depend on 
selling from fifteen to thirty-five women's suits 
and dresses ranging in price from $15 to $50 
on the day he shows these goods in his 
window. 

"A York, Pa., retailer who had a sale of about 
$15 per week on a certain 60-cent candy, found 
that he had increased its sale to an average of 
$100 per week by devoting a window each 
Saturday to this candy. 

"Last August a Philadelphia store, during the 
time of a general furniture sale, placed a par- 
ticular bedroom set in one of its windows. All 
the sets of this design were entirely sold out in 
two days. 

"Another New York store one day last summer 
devoted their three windows, one to sport coats, 
one to straw hats, and one to women's hand bags. 
As a result twenty-two sport coats were sold, 
three hundred and forty-five straw hats, and $600 
worth of bags during that day."* 

I have purposely selected records made during 
normal times (as references to 60-cent candy and 

*The Modem R4tailer, Decemb«r, 1915. 



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9\ 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Merchan- 
dise Sold 
^Vhe^ 
Displayed 



Ili;il from loiii: rxixM-UMur lir c.ni drprnd on 
scWmi: from liflivn lo lliirly-fivo womcMi's snils 
and diwssi's nm.i^ino in prico from $1.5 lo $50 
i>n ihc ihiy he shows (Iirsr ^^omls in i,is 
window. 

"A ^ ork, Pn., ivlail(M- wlio li.id a s;dr of ahoul 
$l.-> ptT wtvk on a (vrlain (i()-(vn( candy, fonnd 
that ho had incivasod its sah^ io an avora^'o of 
^\00 per wook hy dovotino- a window each 
Salurtlay to tliis candy. 

*i.ast Aniiiist a Fhilaih^lphia store, (hiring the 
tiiJic of a ovncral fnrnitnrc sale, placed a par- 
ticnlar hcch'ooni set in one of its windows. All 
tlie sets of this desii^m were entirely sold out in 
two da vs. 

« 

-Another New York store one day last summer 
devoted their tliree windows, one to sport coats, 
one to straw hats,and one to women's hand bags. 
As a result twenty-two sport coats were sold, 
three liundredand forty-five straw hats,and $G00 
worth of bags during that day."* 

I have purposely selected records nuule durin^ 
normal times (as references to GO-cent candy and 

*Tkt Modern Rgtailer, Decemb«r, 1915, 



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DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 



95 



fifteen-dollar suits show) as these indicate normal 
reaction to display in ordinary times. 

It would pay every manufacturer to make 
specific tests for himself to see just what increase 
might be expected for his own product in his own 
dealers' stores. 

Such tests are easily arranged, a little tact in 
handling dealers and details of checking being all 
that is required. Properly managed, the dealers 
and clerks themselves become hugely interested in 
the tests. However, emphasis must be laid on the 
fact that the work of checking stock and recording 
sales, before using and during use of display, must 
be handled independently of the dealer, and con- 
ducted in an absolutely uniform way, so that the 
results will represent actual facts and not what you 
may want to prove. 

What you want is information, not confirmation 
of your own foregone conclusions. 

Merchants themselves don't know the possibili- 
ties in dealer display. 

Many manufacturers don't know their own mar- 
ket possibilities. 

This has been demonstrated over and over again 
by manufacturers who have taken the trouble to 



Manufac- 
turers 
Should 
Make 
Specific 
Tests 



More 

Business 

Procurable 



DOES DISPLAY INCREASE SALES? 



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CrUMTi-doIlar suils sliovvj as llicsc iiidicalc normal 
read ion to dlspliiy in ordinary times. 

I( would pay every manufaeturer lo make 
specific tests for himself to see just what increase 
ini^ht he expected for his own product in his own 
dealers' stores. 

Such tests are easily arran^^'d, a little tact in 
handling dealers and details of checking being all 
that is required. Properly managed, the dealers 
and clerks tliemselves })ecome hugely interested in 
the tests. However, emphasis must be laid on the 
fact that the work of checking stock and recording 
sales, before using and during use of display, must 
be handled independently of the dealer, and con- 
ducted in an absolutely uniform way, so that the 
results will represent actual facts and not what vou 
may want to prove. 

What you want is inform at ion, not confirmation 
of your own foregone conclusions. 

Merchants themselves don't know the possibili- 
ties in dealer display. 

Many manufacturers don't know their own mar- 
ket possibilities. 

This has been demonstrated over and over again 
by manufacturers who have taken the trouble to 



Manufac- 
turers 
Should 
Make 
Specific 
Tests 



More 

Business 

Procurable 



96 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Immediate 

Definite 

Returns 



do a little specific analyzing for themselves in a 
given territory, and have gone at the problem of 
fitting a sales and advertising plan which will 
reach in and ladle out those market possibilities. 
Too many of us just skim off the top, which is the 
easiest way. 

Too many merchants and manufacturers simply 
sit back and rest on thtir oars after a few sweeps 
and expect the natural momentum — and the eco- 
nomic currents and eddies — to carry salesmanship 
into safe harbor. 

Window and store display is one form of adver- 
tising on which you can actually check increase in 
sales and get returns immediately. 

It is safe to say that on the average, the mere 
fact of dealer display will show a sales increase 
varying from 25 per cent, to 200 per cent, depend- 
ing on nature of product, locality, season, etc. 
With the knowledge definitely established of how 
much display does increase sales, it remains for the 
manufacturer to use this principle in his selling and 
advertising plan. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE FETISH OF "SIZE" 

ONE of the delusions about dealer display is 
the notion that size is the chief element of 
effectiveness. 

Dominance is indeed the first criterion in Adver- 
tising; but it is necessary to perceive that domi- 
nance is, after all, an effect on the human eye, or 
rather on the optical centres of the brain. Domi- 
nance is an idea in the mind, a reaction to the sense 
stimulus— not the stimulus itself. 

This is clearly seen by a little reflection. 

For instance, you can level a man flat by a black- 
jack blow and he won't even know what happened 
to him. You have floored him physically, by brute 
strength, and the result is you have deadened any 
mental reaction instead of exciting it. The whole 
effect of the blackjack, or of any brute force, is 
physical. But take a fine drill and insert it in the 
tooth and bur-r away and you have an instance of 
a very small sense stimulus producing an intense 



What Is 
*'Doml- 
nance"? 



Physical 
Effect or 
Mental 
Effect 



98 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



THE FETISH OF "SIZE" 



99 



Dominance 
Is Ejrtension 
of Impress 



Tricking 
the Eye 



reaction. A very small sense area is affected, but 
the whole mind is wrapped up in the experience. 

Dominance is degree of absorption in the idea 
presented to you. 

The flash of a diamond ring or scarfpin may take 
your attention entirely off of what a man is saying 
to you. The chic and style of a new gown may 
keep you from seeing what kind of woman is wear- 
mg it. An inharmonious picture in a room, or an 
ugly spot on the wall paper or carpet may be to 
you the most dominating impression from the 
whole ensemble. 

Dominance is not merely the amount of space 
used up to get an impression— dominance is the 
impression. You get it or you don't get it. For 
instance, a few years ago 16 pages were used in one 
number of a well-knowTi national magazine for one 
advertisement, and outside the circles of advertis- 
ing men you can wager not one man in a hundred 
will recall the advertisement if you ask about it. 
Advertising men would remember, of course, be- 
cause it is one of the literary curiosities of the pro- 
fession. 

Dominance is not a physical but a mental effect. 
They who know the laws of the human eye can 



A 



A. 



I 1 



trick it into an impression of size or area or height 

or breadth entirely at variance with the actual 

measurements. 

Fig. 1, for instance, shows exactly 

the same square block of space, but 

handled in four different ways to pro- 
duce different delusions. A looks 

taller than B, because of the long 

lines, whereas the horizontal panels 

of B increase the breadth of the space 

(apparently) . But if you fill in these 

upright lines with close stripes, as in 

C, the space immediately looks wider 

because the eye runs quickly down 
the fine lines but is halted at every 
step when it sweeps across the lines. 
Thus D looks much taller than C. 

Or, take Fig. 2— the same horizontal 
line is altered in its optical effect very 
greatly by small diagonal lines at each 
end— the same length lines in every 
case for figure A and figure B, but by 
their direction they alter the judgment of the eye 
completely. 

Color also creates delusions of size— a room 



C, 



FIG. 1 



Color 

Contributes 
to 

Dominance 



100 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Restless 
Designs 



<r 



> 



> 



B. 



Fig. 2 



< 



papered in blue seems 
larger than one papered 
in red, because blue is a 
receding color, whereas 
red advances. Or sup- 
posing it were papered (Fig. 1) in a very light blue 
and then in a very dark blue— the effect of the 
lighter shade, although both are blue, is to make 
the room apparently very much larger. 

Still another factor in judging size is the extent 
to which the design is cut up or cluttered up in the 
space area— the same size treated with broad open 
spaces gives an effect of bigness, which is partly 
the result of effect on the eye but also very 
much the effect of the mental impression it gives 
you. 

Japanese art shows this conspicuously. Seem- 
ingly no space Hmitation was too small for worth- 
while results, in the hands of those artist-craftsmen 
who applied decorations to the ancient lacquer of 
Japan; or for those inspired brush-men who 
painted the kakemono strips only 10 inches wide, 
or the 5-inch "post hiders," giving visions of all 
outdoors. The effect from space all depends on 
how you handle it. 



I 



THE FETISH OF "SIZE" 



101 



Munsterberg has called attention to the fact that 
a full page in a small sheet magazine gives more 
dominance than a half page in a magazine which is 
actually three times as large, though the half page 
measures a larger area than the full page. The 
impression of size depends on the space limits to 
which the mind has adjusted itself. 

But even arguing solely from the point of view 
of what the manufacturer himself gets out of it, let 
us consider: 

The most selfish purpose the manufacturer has 
in view is Brand emphasis. 

The reason he wants size is because he thinks 
size is synonymous with emphasis. 

A central window cutout not too large, flanked 
by auxiliary smaller pieces which repeat the brand 
suggestion, makes a better and more adaptable 
display than one huge display piece. 

Furthermore, the smaller cutout plus auxiliary 
material is more economically distributed and 
easier to install. Frequently the dealer can use 
two medium-size cutouts in one window. In the 
case of small units, he will take a half dozen and 
pattern them, as it were, throughout his window 
which almost invariably catches the eye, which 



Size Is 
Relative 



Brand 
Emphasis 
Not Matter 
of Size 



Danger in 
Manufac- 
turer's 
Viewpoint 



How Size 
AflFects Use 
by Dealers 



102 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

traveling from unit to unit gets the brand name 
committed to memory almost unconsciously. 

The manufacturer usually favors the largest 
possible size in his dealer display. This is because 
he takes the natural but wholly illogical view that 
the purpose of the display is to serve his interests 
purely-thus, here is a certain amount of space, let 
me therefore use it for all I am worth, to the end 
that I shall get the greatest possible pubhcity value 
from it. 

The manufacturer fails to reckon with the other 
fellow, the dealer, who also is actuated by his own 
self-interest, according to his lights. 

The primary thing to remember about display 

space at the dealers is this-^V does not exist for you 

until it is granted you. It can only he granted hy the 

Savor 0/ the dealer, Therefcrre cater to the dealer view 

of it. 

Size— like every other element in dealer display 
—must be considered from the standpoint of the 
dealer. 

After taking actual measurements of dealer 
stores, in all lines and in cities of various sizes, in 
many different parts of the country, in 1912-13 
the writer was forced to accept what was then an 



THE FETISH OF "SIZE" 



103 



entirely new viewpoint in the matter of size, and 
realized that many manufacturers had been wast- 
ing huge sums by supplying displays which the 
average dealer found too large for the space avail- 
able. In order to get display cooperation it is 
necessary to fit the material to the average win- 
dows into which the display is to go. 

This may be astounding to many manufacturers, 
for there are many manufacturers whose first de- 
sire in their display material is sheer bigness. 
However, this is getting to be more and more 
the mark of the inexperienced. Experience teaches 
year after year that no matter how big and attrac- 
tive the manufacturer's display, it loses out if the 
dealer can't or won't use it. 

Smaller material has proved in practice the bet- 
ter investment for the manufacturer. Here are 
some of the reasons : 

1. Larger distribution possible, since all dealers 

can utilize it. 

2. More adaptable to the peculiar needs of the 

large dealers, who give emphasis to the 
merchandise itself, when trimming win- 
dows, using manufacturer's display ma- 



,' 



■' 



Smaller 
Material 
More 

Practical in 
Most Cases 



104 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

terial as accessory to their merchandise 
layouts. 

3. More economical to produce. 

4. In case dealer has selected a special color 

scheme for window, there is less likelihood 
of small material proving out of harmony, 
whereas a huge display has its own insistent 
color scheme. 

5. More likehhood of material being used inside 

for ledge or counter display, when it has 
served its purpose in the window, thus add- 
ing life to the material. 

6. Easier to distribute to the dealer. 

7. More economical to transport. 

Small and medium-sized material can have all the 
dominating effect of much larger material if the 
artist uses the proper care in color and design 
arrangement. 



(' 



t 



CHAPTER XVI 

PICTURES MAKE THE MIND ACT 

PSYCHOLOGISTS tell us "There is probably 
no fact in the whole of psychology that is 
more significant and profound than the 
one that shows us the Imagination as the source 
and starting point of all our actions. Every 
thought or concept that is conceived bears in it a 
potential energy that leads inevitably to expression 
of some kind." * 

Modern advertising has for its problem: How 
best to stimulate this faculty of Imagination in 
such way as to lead to some act desired from the 
Public. Its object is to arouse a mental image in 
each mind favorable to the product advertised, and 
to do this in the way and under the circumstances 
which will lead most easily and naturally to ex- 
pression — i.e., action. 

Pictures in the mind are what make sales for all 
of us. 

•Elizabeth Severn, "Psychology of Behaviour," p. 135. 

105 






fi 



Importance 

ef 

Imagination 



Pictures 
Stimulate 
the Desired 
Reaction 



I 



Study 
Motives 



106 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

A common aphorism is "Pictures teach better 
than words." This is true because (1) A picture 
gets attention quicker and (2) Stimulates the 
Imagination more completely — i. e., the result to 
the mind is a clearer cut, sharper mental image 
than if the mind is left to build its own image from 
words only. 

The degree of sharpness of the mental image is 
what gives vividness and reality and on this sense 
of reality hinges action. 

Hence, if you want to get action via dealer dis- 
play: Plant a picture which will register with 
vividness and reality in the mind of the consumer. 

How can you do this.^ By learning to analyze 
motives from the consumer's point of view. 

The right picture in dealer display, as with all 
advertising, hinges on getting the motive which 
offers the most powerful appeal. 

Indeed, Advertising Men must take a leaf from 
the lawyers and learn to look jcyr motives, if they 
hope to solve the riddle of human acts. 

But motives — luckily — are no longer the mys- 
tery we once supposed. The practical psychology 
of the past twenty years has made us all familiar 
with the simple reactions of the human mind It 



< 



PICTURES MAKE THE MIND ACT 107 

is possible to chart motives. There is no human 
act which cannot be traced for its origin back to 
some one of the nine recognized impelling motives 
Gain Pride 

Caution Justice 

Fear Hate 

Sentiment Reason 

Ambition 

Says W. F. Barnard: "Effective advertising 
is aimed at impulse and motive. . . . The 
process is one of finding the line of least resist- 



ance. 



>» 



In other words, determine the right appeal, 
whether to 

Gain — of property, security, or self-gratification 
Caution — forethought, inhibition, timidity 
Fear — human weakness, distrust, apprehension 
Sentiment — love of children, love of family, love 

of brother man, love of home 
Ambition — desire for power, for achievement, for 

recognition 
Pride — of appearance, love of show, of applause 

of others 
Justice — sense of duty, honesty, love of the right 



Motives 
Explained 



Complex 
Origin of 
Motives 



108 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Hate — destruction 

Reason — logic, judgment, truth 

Under self-gratification which falls in the classi- 
fication of Gain comes satisfaction of appetite. This 
motive is mentioned in particular as it has been 
played up to very successfully by distributors of 
food products and even in the promotion of the sale 
of articles other than food, as for example, tobacco. 

It is a recognized fact that picturization of food 
such as steaming ham, succulent greens, luscious 
lemon pie, crisp salads, and refreshing lemonade 
acts upon the gastronomic desires and works an 
appeal as effective to-day under the influence of 
civilization as was the appeal of food to man in his 
early savage state.* 

Action follows on the appeal to the right motive; 
and the motive is determined for the individual by 
a complex of many things resulting from the triple 
roots of Heredity, Environment and Originality. 
See the chart page 109. 



♦Compare Reinach in his "History of Art Throughout the Ages": "It is in fact to be 
noted that all the animals represented by quaternary art (a period ending some 
10,000 to H.OOO years before Christ) are of the comestible kinds, wbifh savages en- 
graved or painted in order to attract them by a sort of magic sympathy. Civilized 
man mik.-s b3rperbolic use of the exprersion 'the magic of art.' The primitives act- 
u;llv belii"ved in it." 



PICTURES MAKE THE MIND ACT 109 



Heredity 



X 



Environment 



Originality I 



z 



INDIVIDUAL 




MOTOR IMPULSES 




ANALYSIS OF IMPELLING MOTIVES 

This chart demonstrates the large field covered by the major im- 
pulses and their expressions. It shows the angles of influence through 
which approaches may be devised to carry any commodity through 
the whole gamut of publicity. 



Importance 

of 

Emotion 



Chance for 
Inhibitions 



110 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Quoting again from Barnard : " Who has failed 
to observe that his fellow beings do not as a rule 
express any one of the elements (Feeling, Will, and 
Intellect), purely and by itself, but that emotion 
(Feeling) is qualified by judgment— (Intellect)— 
and vice versa while often judgment is held in 
check by Will or determination?"* 

Emotion dominates human conduct and "both 
intellect and will are chiefly used to give force and 
direction to objects of emotion or desire." . . . 
"The appeal to feelings and emotions carries the day. 
The advertising lure may make much of reason, 
but it will appeal to reason, if it does appeal, 
mainly through the agency of pride, ambition, love, 
faith, fear, or some other motive force.''* 

The plain fact is that this appeal to the emotions 
is the whole secret of advertising which arouses 
desire. 

And particularly is this true of dealer display 
where action on motor impulse is intended to follow 
immediately. Emotional action is quick action, 
held back only by Determination or Judgment— 
what the psychologists call Inhibition. If the 
emotional appeal is strong, it tends to dominate all 

♦Barnard's "The Buying Impulse," 



PICTURES MAKE THE MIND ACT 111 

contrary influences — unless the individual has rare 
self-discipline, or is in the grip of circumstances 
which render action impossible at the time. 

For example — a mother sees a pretty dress on 
display and instantly pictures the dress on her 
daughter. The appeal is to emotion (specifically 
the sentiment of parental love). But the child for 
some reason needs the discipline of denial and the 
mother determines to resist this appeal to her emo- 
tion. Result, no sale. Or, another negative in- 
fluence arises, the fact that the daughter already 
has all the dresses she needs, or the fact that the 
dress is too expensive for the purse of the mother. 
The mother then exercises Judgment. In other 
words, the Motor Act has been inhibited — result, 
no sale is made. 

It follows inevitably that the longer the time that 
elapses between the arousing of the Emotion and the 
Act, the more chances there are that inhibition will set 
in — or that the emotion of itself will subside and 
actually fade out of the customer's mind. But here 
again, remember that no idea ever really disappears 
but leaves its "scar" in the substance of the brain, 
to be jolted to fresh activity if ever again the right 
reminder reaches the brain. Herein lies the whole 



Reflection 

Retards 

Action 






Action on 
Impulse 



112 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

basis for General Publicity, which seeks to impress 
the consumer's mind again and again with the 
Brand name, so that when the time of need comes 
around eventually these old "scars" will uncover 
themselves and the consumer will tend to select that 
specific brand. It is an immutable theory. And 
it works out in practice. But it takes time — and 
time — just t-i-m-e is your element of greatest ex- 
pense in Advertising! 

The virtue of dealer display is that it provides 
every condition to hasten Action — and thereby 

(1) Reduces the chance for negative influences. 

(2) Cuts down the expense factor of Time in get- 

ting results from the Advertising. 

In other words, it capitalizes on the working 
methods of the human mind to the advantage of 
the Advertiser. 






CHAPTER XVII 

ANALYZING A PRODUCT FOR DISPLAY 

PICTURIZATION must be vivid if it is to 
make the mind act. 
Vividness or emphasis comes from stress- 
ing "the big idea" and making all else subordinate 
to that. 

It calls for elimination even where this means 
sacrifice — ^like the pinching off of many buds in 
order to insure one perfect fruit or flower. 

Art, w^e know, consists in producing unity out of 
multiplicity of impressions — and the rapid-fire art 
of display needs this even more than "art for art's 
sake" needs it. 

For the proper unmistakable emphasis of the one 
biggest thing in the display, all the other factors 
must be re-appraised, and the relatively less im- 
portant put where they Vvill be after-beats of 
attention, or repetitions of suggestions, thus sup- 
porting the one big or main idea. 

Some things will have to be eliminated totally, 

113 



The **Big 
Idea" 



m. 



il 



Must 
Make 
Sacrifice 



Peculiar 
Needs of 
Display 



114 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

not because they have no value, but because their 
very value will tend to distract and compete with 
the main theme or big idea. 

These sacrifices are often painful, but none the 
less necessary. A really good display idea which 
originated with the manufacturer himself should be 
turned over to the expert for adaptation for display 
before going too far with specifications, or results 
may prove disappointing. 

Display has its own needs and when an advertiser 
has not been accustomed to thinking along the lines 
of display requirement, he is too apt to assume 
that the laws of layout and rules of art which have 
served so admirably in magazine and newspaper 
space are all that is needed for display material for 
store or window. 

Dealer Display is no side-line in Advertising. 

Thinking in terms of window display is a differ- 
ent practice from thinking in terms of magazine 
space. Some of the things learned by window 
dressers can be adapted to the uses of lithographed 
ready-made displays, and all of the established rules 
of art on the subject of design, contrast, and color 
are indispensable. But having reached this point 
the path of Display follows a course unto itself. 




M 

< 1 






THIS DISPLAY COMBINES TWO FUNCTIONS 

(1) Dominates the window as a Wright & 
Ditson display and 

(2) Provides a picture suggestion to appeal 
to lovers of athletics. 



114 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Must 
Make 
Sacrifice 



Peculiar 
Needs of 
Display 



not because they have no value, but because their 
very value will tend to distract and compete with 
the main theme or big idea. 

These sacrifices are often painful, but none the 
less necessary. A really good display idea which 
originated w ith the manufacturer himself should be 
turned over to the expert for adaptation for display 
before going too far with specifications, or results 
may prove disappointing. 

Display has its own needs and when an advertiser 
has not been accustomed to thinking along the lines 
of display requirement, he is too apt to assume 
that the laws of layout and rules of art which have 
served so admirably in magazine and newspaper 
space are all that is needed for display material for 
store or window. 

Dealer Display is no side-line in Advertising. 

Thinking in terms of window display is a differ- 
ent practice from thinking in terms of magazine 
space. Some of the things learned by window 
dressers can be adapted to the uses of lithographed 
ready-made displays, and all of the established rules 
of art on the subject of design, contrast, and color 
are indispensable. But having reached this point 
the path of Display follows a course unto itself. 




Tins DISPLAY COMBINES TWO FUNCTIONS 

(1) Dominates the window as a AVright & 
Ditson display and 

(2) Provides a picture suggestion to appeal 
to lovers of athletics. 




ANALYZING A PRODUCT 



115 



THIS DISPLAY FULFILLS TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS 

(1) Brand domination 

(^) Selling argument with a hint of 

(3) Environment in the tile effect and sanitary 
suggestion of the blue-and- white color scheme. 



On the one hand, a display is not a magazine 
page eighteen inches from the consumer's eye — 
neither is it the blank side of a building or a bill- 
board. A dealer display can't "do as it pleases," 
for it has no rights save those accorded it by the 
dealer. It is essentially a guest and must behave 
with that same sense of decorum. 

A display for the dealer has three possible func- 
tions and can only be successful when it fulfils some 
one of the three, although far better to combine all 
three functions. Thus: 

1. Dominate the window — Feature the brand 

name or package or the seasonable sugges- 
tion. The brand name should be con- 
spicuous without offending good taste. 

2. Emphasize the selling argument — bearing in 

mind the need to make some one particular 
argument stand out; as otherwise the 
strength of impression is vitiated by strad- 
dling attention. 

3. Set off the merchandise — providing an en- 

vironment, whether of (1) Suggestion, (2) 
Color interest, or (3) Inviting arrangement 
of design. 



Display 
Space 

Differs from 
Other Space 



Three 
Functions 
of Displ^ 



IS-. 




ANALYZING A PRODUCT 



115 



THIS DISPLAY FULFILLS TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS 

(1) Bniiid (loiuiiuitiou 

(•2) Selling argimu'ut with a hint of 

(3) Environment in the tile effeet and sanitarv 
suggestion of the blue-and-white color scheme. 



m 



On the one hand, a display is not a magazine 
page eighteen inches from the consumer's eye — 
neither is it the blank side of a building or a bill- 
board. A dealer display can't "do as it pleases," 
for it has no rights save those accorded it by the 
dealer. It is essentially a guest and must behave 
with that same sense of decorum. 

A display for the dealer has three possible func- 
tions and can only be successful when it fulfils some 
one of the three, although far better to combine all 
three functions. Thus: 

1. Dominate the window — Feature the brand 

name or package or the seasonable sugges- 
tion. The brand name should be con- 
spicuous without offending good taste. 

2. Emphasize the selling argument — bearing in 

mind the need to make some one particular 
argument stand out; as otherwise the 
strength of impression is vitiated by strad- 
dling attention. 

3. Set off the merchandise — providing an en- 

vironment, whether of (1) Suggestion, (2) 
Color interest, or (3) Inviting arrangement 
of design. 



Display 
Space 

Differs from 
Other Space 



Three 
Functions 
of Displ^ 



Established 
Character 
of Display 



Determine 

Dominant 

Idea 



i^ 



Hi 



116 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

But now, knowing the function, what is the next 
step in planning a display? 

Clearly the next thing is to establish its Charac- 
ter. This is a twofold problem, for the character 
must fit not only the (1) Product but the (2) Kind 
of Dealer. 

If a display is "out of character" on either 
point, it is no good commercially. 

With the Function and Character of the display 
material clearly in mind, as outlined above, the 
next consideration is the Dominant Idea. 

Out of the mass of possible ideas must be selected 
the one most fruitful idea, i. e., the idea best cal- 
culated to attract attention or induce the desired 
action or create an unforgettable impression, ac- 
cording to the specific object in view. 

But get this: 

A dominant Idea does not always have to be a 
selling idea, although as a matter of practice it 
usually is the principal selling argument. The 
following are all possible considerations in the 
search for the Dominant Idea for a given display : 

1. Principal sales argu nent. 

2. Some novel sales arr^ument. 



1 



ANALYZING A PRODUCT 



117 



3. Timeliness of appeal 

4. Quality Suggestion 

5. Dominant representation — of name or pro- 

duct 

6. Catering to the dealer. 

The Dominant Idea may partake of the nature 
of one or more of the above, but it must essentially 
be a single idea. No window was ever large 
enough for two ideas although it is possible to 
"get by" with several ideas if all but one are 
forcibly subordinated. Ideas have an insistent 
way about them and they actually fight for exist- 
ence ! It must be a case of the survival of the most 
fit. 

Of course, in all Advertising, the greatest thing 
is to find something different to advertise. It's 
the difference that distinguishes the branded steer 
from the common herd. Take a product in your 
hand and consider it for display. Immediately 
it starts a chain of thought — a lot of varied ideas 
shoot by, but these are only way-stations until 
you come to the one different idea which distin- 
guishes that brand. Immediately your train of 
thought slows up and you halt at the Station-of-a- 



The 

* 'Different" 

Idea 



' 



Simplicity 

and 

Eliminatioii 



118 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Different-Idea. All the other ideas are suppressed 
as they pass in review, leaving you finally alone 
with the one most fruitful idea. The diagram on 
page 119 shows this. 

Simplicity is the keynote of window advertising 
that is successful. 

Simplicity and its partner Elimination work as 
one. 

The display must tell an interesting story and 
tell it quickly. 

Simple windows sell the most goods. 

The principal test of a good display is what you 
leave out, rather than what you put in. 

Experience proves this is so. 

But sometimes new advertisers find it hard to 
see the need to sacrifice some part of the selling 
story ! 



ANALYSIS FOR DISPLAY 

Name of Produci:.l>C.U.^l€<^.What is it-fe!^-^5-i?. 
Points to consider For possible appeal to consumer. 



USE? 



QUALITY ? 



PRICE ? 



-Gu 



<«- 



^ 



caj^Y^-^-^-tL 



s-o-a-tk^ 






H'VO 



PRESTIGE ? 



CLIENTELE? 



NOVELTY ? 



APPEAR^NCE? 



NAME? 



^^ 



•VVo 




_<JL.»* ■■<CfcL»- 



-^-"-^ 



-vv-vJCdULx- 



clX-c*--!>-^ 



-v^xHp^-« 










,>-4t"«.'*->% 



Conclusiort: 



m 



119 



IM 



Sympathetic 

Artist 

Essential 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE ART SIDE OF IT 

WHEN it is once settled what kind of dis- 
play will (1) get the dealer's window and 
(2) tell the advertiser's story, you are 
then ready to call in the artist and put your trust 
in his power and genius. 

Here we meet one of the big stumbling blocks — 
for unless the problem at this stage arouses the 
interest of the artist, it is almost hopeless to get a 
satisfying result — for unless that vital quality 
shines out in the finished sketch, the thing will not 
strike fire when it is viewed by the dealer and con- 
sumer. 

A dub artist can't make a good display, no mat- 
ter how conscientiously he labors. 

The best artist in the world can't execute a 
worth-while display unless he gets in sympathy 
with the subject and understands the purposes and 
psychology of window and store display. He must 
recognize the limitations or he can't defeat them. 

120 



THE ART SIDE OF IT 



121 



I 



From the time of Sir John Millais and his famous 
picture of the Royal Academy Exhibition, "Bub- 
bles," subsequently sold to Pear's Soap for $11,000 
there has gradually developed a new function for 
real Art, namely adapting it to the practical uses of 
Advertising. 

Art has always had its Patron — specifying what 
it must teach, but giving, beyond that, as wide as 
possible latitude for execution. From the earliest 
graven images up to the culminating art of Rubens 
and Michelangelo, of the mediseval Church, Art 
had a religious function. Then as patronage was 
transferred to the hands of kings and nobles, Art 
developed new motives of culture and historical 
representation. From kings and nobles that pat- 
ronage passed to the public, who to-day are the 
great arbiters of Art. 

This new Patron, the great Public, cannot be 
reached by individual canvasses, hence first of all 
Art to-day calls for successfvl reproduction — ^that 
inherent vigor and virtue of color and line and idea 
which survives endless multiplication. The great 
thing for the artist to-day is to make something that 
can be successfully reproduced. 

There is nothing to prevent the individual artist 



Art vs. 
Commerce 



Public the 
Real Patron 
of Art 
To-day 



Technique 
of Display 
Art 



122 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

from continually striving for new development, 
new accomplishment, but it is natural that some of 
this effort is bound to fall beyond the powers of 
appreciation of the real Patron, the Public. 

This is far from being a criticism of too-futuristic 
or too-cubistic or too-mauvistic modern effects — 
it is simply a caution that they are not — as yet — 
ready for the uses of ordinary Advertising, because 
the great mass of the Public is not ready for them. 

Surely we who are studious of all that enters into 
Advertising — i. e., influencing human minds — can 
afford to keep a watchful eye on what modern art 
is attempting to demonstrate for us and use such 
factors and effects in it as have a value for our pur- 
poses. 

In my opinion, Commercial Art as it exists to- 
day calls for more genius and a higher degree of 
technical skill than any previous patron ever re- 
quired of the artist — without exception. 

If an artist is "above the business" in Commer- 
cial Art, he simply isn't up to it, and results prove 
it. 

From the art side. Display has its own technique 
and this also must be learned. 

A large number of factors enter into Display Art 



1! 



1« 







■vH' -wss^^w 



-^'^i?^"-^^>^t^ 







i;«h-^ 




*N, It 5. SI 

till. 
Iillis » SI 



ZMSl 



silt 






111 




I— I 
Q 

< 

iM 

w 

Q 
Q 

O 

K 
a: 

< 

I 

a 



122 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Technique 
of Display 
Art 



from continually striving for new development, 
new accomplishment, but it is natural that some of 
this effort is bound to fall beyond the powers of 
appreciation of the real Patron, the Public. 

This is far from being a criticism of too-futuristic 
or too-cubistic or too-mauvistic modern effects — 
it is simply a caution that they are not — as yet — 
ready for the uses of ordinary Advertising, because 
the great mass of the Public is not ready for them. 

Surely we who are studious of all that enters into 
Advertising — i. e., influencing human minds — can 
afford to keep a watchful eye on what modern art 
is attempting to demonstrate for us and use such 
factors and effects in it as have a value for our pur- 
poses. 

In my opinion, Commercial Art as it exists to- 
day calls for more genius and a higher degree of 
technical skill than any previous patron ever re- 
quired of the artist — without exception. 

If an artist is "above the business" in Commer- 
cial Art, he simply isn't up to it, and results prove 
it. 

From the art side. Display has its own technique 
and this also must be learned. 

A large number of factors enter into Display Art 











L 


H ™ 




s 


%iml 


& 


w 


^3bII 




rj 


^Hl ^ 




ffi 







< 



1. 

K 
Q 






5* S. 



8 



<§' > ^ !m 




J. 
< 






THE ART SIDE OF IT 



123 







4; 

22 



S 



which do not figure, or figure in less degree of im- 
portance, in other kinds of Commercial Art. 

Where the artist in other lines deals with a set 
space and single plane, the Display Artist works in 
several planes, each bounded by its own irregular 
outline and he must fit his vision to the actual 
construction imposed by the display's require- 
ments. 

Moreover, he should work— first— for attention 
—that "arresting quality" which automatically 
settles the fate of every piece of display with the 
dealer and public (and should settle it with the 
manufacturer). 

The Display Artist should know that the two 
indispensable virtues are Simplicity and Legibility 
— i. e., understandableness of the display, both in 
copy and picture. For a display is not a thing to 
be studied by the public or the dealer. It demands 
quick reaction. 

The Display Artist must recognize the need for 
elimination, the inexorable law of "Less detail!" 

He must get attention by the sheer force of mass 
and line and the right use of space to set off his 
panel of copy or picture. 

He must know the value of color, both physical 



THE ART SIDE OF IT 



123 




Y 



Y 



wliicli do not figiirv, or fi<^iire in less dr^rre of iin- 
portancc, in oilier kinds of ("onniicrcial Art. 

Where llie artist in oilier lines deals with a set 
space and single plane, I lie Display Artist works in 
several planes, each bounded hy its own irregular 
outline and he nuist fit his vision to the aelual 
construction imposed by tlie display's reriuire- 
ments. 

Moreover, he sliould work— first— for attention 
—that "arresting quality" wliieli autoniatieallv 
settles the fate of every piece of disj)lay with the 
dealer and public (and sliould settle it with the 
manufacturer). 

The Display Artist should know that the two 
indispensable virtues are Simplicity and Legibility 
— i. e., understandableness of the display, l)oth in 
copy and picture. For a display is not a thing to 
be studied by the public or tlie dealer. It demands 
quick reaction. 

The Display Artist must recognize the need for 
elimination, the inexorable law of "Less detail!" 

He must get attention l)y the sheer force of mass 
and line and the right use of space to set off his 
panel of copy or picture. 

He must know the value of color, both physical 



124 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

effect on the eye and unconscious effect on the 
mind. He must study interesting combinations. 

For whatever the idea, it must be brought out in 
terms of window display art and worked out ac- 
cording to the known laws of successful Dealer 
Display practice. 









CRIPTER XIX 

VALVE OF POSTER TREATMEST IS DEALER DISPLAY 

IT WOULD be foolish to make dogmatic asser- 
tions upholding the supremacy of any one 
particular art style as best adapted to window 
purposes, because primarily every factor in dealer 
display must be considered from the point of view 
of the individual problem. 

At the same time, this general survey of window 
and store advertising as it exists to-day would be 
noticeably incomplete without some specific em- 
phasis on the value of poster treatment. 

The poster is "an impression, a flash of line, a 
snap of color— all that can be told in the passage 
of an instant." 

It is distinctly a "first -glance" .\rt. deliver- 
ing its message mstantly both in picture and 
copy. 

True poster treatment must be striking and 
simple, not only as to design but as to colors. As 
soon as the design of the display becomes too in- 

1^5 



Poster 
Principles 



-5= 



Secret of 

Poster 

Power 



Origin of 
Poster 



126 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

volved for quick recognition and appreciation it 
ceases to be good poster treatment. 

A true poster must be decorative — worked out 
in flat surfaces, with little or no perspective, as 
little detail as possible— but in its whole technique 
marked by the greatest possible breadth and sweep 
and simplicity. 

The advantage of poster style for display pur- 
poses is that it creates an atmosphere around itself 
which successfully sends away from it all other 
crowding objects. It is this which has made it 
primarily the art of outdoor advertising and the 
very same quality makes it useful in dealer display 
because it separates itself from its surroundings and 
for the moment exclusively holds the complete 
attention— draws the eye from a long, long 
way. 

The poster— although as old as civilization- 
dates its modern development in France with book 
posters by Lalance (1836 circa) followed by many 
others. An entirely new impetus was given to it in 
England by the famous "Woman in White" poster 
designed by Fred Walker in 1871 to advertise the 
book by Wilkie Collins, then at the height of his 
popularity. This first modern poster set a new 




I 



Secret of 

Poster 

Power 



I 



Origin of 
Poster 



126 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

volved for quick recognition and appreciation it 
ceases to be good poster treatment. 

A true poster must be decorative — worked out 
in flat surfaces, with little or no perspective, as 
little detail as possible— but in its whole technique 
marked by the greatest possible breadth and sweep 
and simplicity. 

The advantage of poster style for display pur- 
poses is that it creates an atmosphere around itself 
which successfully sends away from it all other 
crowding objects. It is this which has made it 
primarily the art of outdoor advertising and the 
very same quality makes it useful in dealer display 
because it separates itself from its surroundings and 
for the moment exclusively holds the complete 
attention— draws the eye from a long, long 
way. 

The poster— although as old as civilization- 
dates its modern development in France with book 
posters by Lalance (1836 circa) followed by many 
others. An entirely new impetus was given to it in 
England by the famous "Woman in White" poster 
designed by Fred Walker in 1871 to advertise the 
book by Wilkie Collins, then at the height of his 
popularity. This first modern poster set a new 




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VALUE OF POSTER TREATMENT 127 

style, showing the significance of line and mass 
as opposed to "impressionistic" lighting. 

There is a notion in the minds of advertisers that 
poster art is distinctly a German style of art. 
Nothing could be further from the truth although 
German advertisers were perhaps the first to see 
the commercial possibilities in the poster's sledge- 
hammer strength. German poster art so-called is 
a notable development of poster art, taking its cue 
from France originally, just as France probably 
took it from the Japanese prints or Ukioye Art of 
Japan. Modern Poster Art developed simulta- 
neously in England and on the continent, and 
most rapidly in the last five years of the 19th 
century, culminating in a distinct German type of 
poster, conspicuous for startlingness, whereas the 
French poster had aimed more at a certain nicety 
of taste. The German style had in it vigorousness 
and daring originality. Still another distinct in- 
fluence, first considered curious only, but now ar- 
tistic, came with the Russian stage and costume 
designer, Bakst. 

In America the development hardly gained 
much headway until ten years after all these in- 
fluences were recognized in Europe. Book pub- 



European 
Posters 



Poster in 
America 








Mj 






X 









V3 — 

- X 

-Si -^ 

C be 

X 



X = 

= 1 

c -^ 



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VALUE OF POSTER TREATMENT 127 

style, showing the significance of line and mass 
as opposed to "impressionistic" h'ghting. 

There is a notion in the minds of advertisers that 
poster art is distinctly a German style of art. 
Nothing could be further from the truth although 
German advertisers were perhaps the first to see 
the commercial possibilities in the poster's sledge- 
hammer strength. German poster art so-called is 
a notable development of poster art, taking its cue 
from France originally, just as France probably 
took it from the Japanese prints or Ukioye Art of 
Japan. Modern Poster Art developed simulta- 
neously in England and on the continent, and 
most rapidly in the last five years of the 19th 
century, culminating in a distinct German type of 
poster, conspicuous for startlingness, whereas the 
French poster had aimed more at a certain nicety 
of taste. The German style had in it vigorousness 
and daring originality. Still another distinct in- 
fluence, first considered curious only, but now ar- 
tistic, came with the Russian stage and costume 
designer, Bakst. 

In America the development hardly gained 
much headway until ten years after all these in- 
fluences were recognized in Europe. Book pub- 



European 
Posters 



Poster in 
America 






t 



New 

Impetus to 
Advertising 
Art 



128 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

lishers during the mad era of "Best Sellers " applied 
poster art to their covers and advertising jackets. 

By 1915 the effects of poster influence became 
very conspicuous in the United States, in the maga- 
zine covers and decorations first of all, but quickly 
penetrating to the advertising pages also. During 
the war, the poster in all its forms became the 
great power of appeal to the pubhc. Wliether we 
knew it or not our whole public attitude toward 
the picture and design was being altered by many 
influences, furthered by the fact that the best 
artists of the world turned their talents to appeal 
not to the cultured few but to the general public. 
The standards of public taste were actually 
changed during the European War period — need- 
less to say for the better. 

Advertising Art could no more remain untouched 
by these influences than could other Art. 

As a matter of fact, it didn't, and a comparison 
with any magazine to-day with one, say, of ten 
years or even five years back, shows an astounding 
improvement in grace and color and attention 
quality. The old wooden attitudes and paucity of 
imagination from which Advertising Art suffered 
in yesteryears is happily gone forever. Advertis- 



VALUE OF POSTER TREATMENT 129 

ing design now calls for brilliant and striking effects 
undreamed of a very short time ago. 

To-day, some of the best art in the world is serv- 
ing commercial purposes. There is no doubt 
about it. Better art work pays. 

Some form of poster treatment is no doubt 
adapted to your individual message, but must be 
planned to meet the specific problem. Some mes- 
sages require delicacy of detail and multiplicity of 
colors, others require vigorous, strong handling. 

You are the winner every time if you use poster 
art for your display — because poster treatment 
economizes the three great expenses in all adver- 
tising — the investment of Space, Time, and Effort. 

Whether one individually likes or does not like 
poster art is not germane to the discussion, the only 
question being, what makes for the best display. 

All advertisers make one mistake sometimes, and 
they are lucky indeed if they dont make it all the time 
— namely, judging the appeal to the public by what 
appeals to them individually. 

And nowhere is this truer than in the matter of 
style of art treatment ! 



Function 
of Color 



K 



CHAPTER XX 

COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 

RT has been said to have but three simple 
requisites — 



Quality of line 

Contrast 

Color 

The habit of the eye is to follow lines — but lines 
in Nature are merely the edges of color areas. 
Color is what the eye sees before it sees lines. 

In other words, Color attracts. 

The primary function of color is to distinguish 
one thing from another. It focusses attention. It 
makes things findable. 

Every color has some attention value. Observa- 
tion shows that Nature uses certain colors sparingly 
and others lavishly over large areas — masses of 
green foliage or brown earth, or blue spaces of sky 
or water — but red and yellow sparingly — in spots 

130 









COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 131 

or dabs or streaks of vivid color, or floods of evanes- 
cent glow. 

Nature never "paints the whole town red" as it 
were. She discriminates. 

Moreover, Nature actually uses color to attract 
attention, just as the modern advertiser. Scient- 
ists point out that it is not an accident that flowers 
and fruit are vivid to the eye — it is a provision of 
Nature to serve her purpose. The spots and streaks 
and shadings of color on the flower are merely sign- 
marks to the bee to point the way to gather honey 
— and in turn fertilize the flower for Mother Na- 
ture. In just such way the Modern Advertiser 
uses color to serve his purposes of fructification. 

Fine discrimination in the use of Color is the very 
essence of the law of Display material. 

But how discriminate.^ Is it then a matter of 
individual taste, a sort of tact which does the right 
thing instinctively but knows no laws.'^ 

Far from it. Color is one of the most scientific 
things in the universe, a science in its infancy so 
far as man's study is concerned. But even the 
little the world knows about color science proves 
how immutable and unvarying it is in obeying 
its own laws. 



Need for 
Discrimina- 
tion 



Scientific 
Use of 
Color 



132 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Physical 
Basis of 
Color 



Color — scientifically speaking — is a nerve sensa- 
tion, hence its unconscious effect upon us. 

Color is merely the difference in sensation pro- 
duced by wave length, the larger the wave length 
the quicker it reaches the eye — i. e., it gets our 
attention more readily. 

The following table shows the difference in wave 
length of common colors and their relative atten- 
tion value, purely on this physical basis: 



VNl 


i COLOR DISTIN- 


WAVE length 




GUISHED BY EYE 


] 


IN MM. 


1 


Red 


.000656 


Called 


2 


Orange 


. 000608 


Advanc- 


3 


Golden Yellow 


.000574 


ing 


4 


Yetj-ow 


.000567 


Colors 


5 


Green Yellow 


.000564 




6 


Blue Green 


.000492 


Called 


7 


Blue 


. 000490 


8 


Indigo Blue 


. 000464 


Colors 


9 


Violet 


. 000433 



As a matter of fact, scientists estimate that the 
human eye is sensitive to only about 20 per cent, of 
the total light sensations! Moreover, full appre- 
ciation of even this 20 per cent, varies with different 



COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 133 

individuals. At the same time advertisers need 
not worry about what is called color blindness, 
since only 50 men out of a thousand see colors 
falsely, and women are even more dependable, 
being 99.6 per cent, color exact, only 4 out of 1,000 
being color blind. 

Color has thus a practically universal appeal and 
its study is indispensable to the Advertiser. 

Now then : Color being a nerve sensation, it is 
a feeling. Color makes you feel and not merely see. 
And a feeling, according to the most modern psy- 
chology (tests of Prof. Paul Thomas Young, Ph. D., 
of Cornell, reported in the American Journal of 
Psychology), is never confused or "mixed," but 
must register one thing or the other — pleasure or 
pain. This leads up to a very interesting study of 
what effect pure color has on the mind. 

Elementally, we know that all colors fall into two 
opposing classifications — 

Warm colors — Red, Orange, Yellow (Advancing 
Colors) 

Cool colors — Green, Blue, Violet (Receding 
Colors) 
and thus we come to the following commonly ac- 
cepted associations: 



Color 

Excites 
Feeling 



134 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Red— excites nerves, arouses feelings, motor 
impulses 

Orange — 

Yellow— ^^^*^°^' especially orange 

Green— restful, soothing, neither warm nor 
cool but neutralizing 

Blue— cooling, quieting, expresses serenity, 
spirituality, etc. 
Lavender — tran quil 

Purple— Stateliness, solemnity, richness, 
royalty 

White— Purity, quality of spiritual superiority 
or physical immaculateness 

We could not venture to assert, as many have, 
that these are laws of association with color— i. e, 
invariable effects. But we do know that they are 
common associations, and the different colors do 
tend to these mental suggestions. ProL Alvah 
Parsons* states that these effects are the result of 
association with the face of Nature, red being ex- 
citing, stimulating, because it is the color of blood, 
the color of fire, etc. In the sa«ie way, blue is 
peaceful, composing, and purity-inspiring, because 
of the b lue of the heavens. Green is cooling, sooth- 

•Parsons, "Principles of Advertising ArrangemeiiL'" 



COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 135 

ing, because it is the color of Nature's enfolding 
and protecting investitures. 

We do know that Color has a mental side as well 
as a purely physical. It is because Color can "ex- 
cite the imagination and extend ideas"* that it 
demands that earnest study necessary to make it 
most productive for the uses of Advertising. 

Positive, strong, dark colors increase the sugges- 
tion of strength. Pale light colors increase the 
suggestion of delicacy, airiness, and spaciousness. 
WTien you want to increase the apparent space use 
light areas for background. When you want ricli- 
ness, weight, and depth in your backgrounds- 
use dark fields to set off brilliant foregrounds or 
to obtain striking contrasts. 

Pastel tints and shades are feminine, clinging, 
soft, appealing, ingratiating. They are not direct 
but subtle in their intimations, hence their witch- 
ery when in keeping with the suggestion of the 
subject which happens to be linked up with femi- 
nine qualities in some way, such as display for 
toilet goods, for example. 

All colors have this quality of Suggestion — an 
effect on the mindy as well as an effect on the retina 

•Lukeish, "The Language of Color," p. 71. 



Light 
VS. 

Dark 
Colors 



Suggestion 
by Means 
of Color 



Physical 

PuUof 

Color 



Relative 
Area a 
Factor in 
Color 
Effect 



136 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

of the eye. Blue and white puts you in a different 
mind attitude from rose pink. Orange and black 
is commanding, challenging — never wistful or ap- 
pealing. 

Color attracts, and just in proportion to its pull 
on the eye theartist's hand must restrain, and give to 
the most powerful color the smallest area, ]\xsi as Nature 
does. Being the strongest emphasis in the display 
or picture, the bright color should be conserved 
where it is most wanted and not smeared all over. 

Color can be used to give accentuation and to 
make a given part of the display leap to the front. 

When color is used for emphasis it must not be 
used so liberally as to destroy all emphasis — a 
common failing with printers and advertisers. 

Emphasis is relative. It can't be anything but 
relative — 

In fact, you cannot talk about colors just as 
colors — you must consider their area. 

Lukeish quotes some tests from Le Courier der 
Len showing the effect of colors on legibility. 
When viewed from considerable distance, the best 
combinations were as follows: 

1. Black on Yellow 

2. Green on WTiite 



I 



' 






i 



COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 137 

3. Red on White 

4. Blue on \Miite 

5. White on Blue 

6. Black on White 

Black on yellow is best for distance, because 
yellow by its luminosity is best fitted to make that 
distant space stand out, thus attracting the eye to 
the space limits containing the message. But it 
would be very easy to make a mistake in this com- 
bination, for the lettering might be black yet so 
thin that the actual area of blackness would be 
swallowed up by the swimming yellow background, 
so that you would see the yellow — but not the 
message. Color must always be considered with 
regard to its ability to hold its own with surround- 
ing area. Distance must always be taken into 
account as well as competing objects for attention. 

For convenience, however, the following Visi- 
bility table for colors may be useful : 

Yellow 12 times the visibility of purple 

9 times the visibility of purple 
7 times the visibility of purple 
5 times the visibility of purple 
3 times the visibility of purple 
Lowest in visibility 



ORA.NGE 

Green 
Red 

Blue 
Purple 



Visibility 
of Colors 



Color in 

Dealer 

Display 



I 



" 



Quality in 
Display Not 
Dependent 
on Many 
Colors 



138 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Color has more freedom in dealer display than 
in any other form of Advertising. 
Color can give 

INDIVIDUALITY 
POWER 

DOMINANCE 
to any product. 

Color does not mean any cohr—hui rather wise 
discrimination. Color does not mean all the colors 
in the rainbow— but a few colors carefully selected 
and ably handled by an artist skilled in window 
effects. 

When your eye happens to fall on a striking dis- 
play and you burst out with "Gee, but that's 
good!" just try to analyze your own sensations. 
You'll find every time the effect is produced be- 
cause the first flash of colors surprise and please 
you. 

Many advertisers buy displays just because they 
abound in many colors. This is dangerous because 
often many colors have blinded them to the real 
message the display is intended to convey. The 
qualities of surprise and please are important in 
dealer display. As a matter of fact, you can get a 
big idea across readily by "playing" with just a 



COLOR AS RELATED TO DISPLAY 139 

few colors, but knowing their possibilities inti- 
mately. A good design of five colors in proper 
contrast and area is frequently far more effective 
than the same pictorial fact worked out in elabo- 
rate detail. 

"Through the elimination of detail," says 
Henry R. Poore, A. N. A.,* "the work is sifted to 
its essence and we then see it in its bigness— if it 
has any— and if not we discover this lack." 

In display advertising it pays to do things in 
some different and dominating way. 

As Gibbs Mason put it in Printing AH— 
"Only the 'exceptional' in Advertising attracts 
particular notice and admiration. People are 
getting *fed up' on the average run of cheap ad- 
vertising." 

Color attracts the eye in a physical way as 
follows : 

1— By rarity— arousing mental interest, instinc- 
tive curiosity by novelty. 

2— By area— sheer weight pulls the eye around. 

3— By startling— challenge of physical shock to 
the optic nerve. 



How 
Color Acts 



♦Poore, "Pictorial Composition.' 



Jill 



140 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



ilfi 



4 — By pleasing — disposing the mind to settle in 
contemplation, quite apart from appeal to 
intelligence. 
5 — ^By offending — inducing a feeling of discom- 
fort, and immediate effort to get away. 
Yet some think that because ugliness 
"attracts" it must be good advertising! 
One could analyze any given design space to 
show how much is in the power of art to assist the 
advertiser's message. The intention here is merely 
to drive home the fact that unconsciously color and 
line affect the human eye, not merely the eye of the 
artist but the eye of the public, your eye, my eye. 
This effect is entirely independent of copy story or 
known subject! 

Why not capitalize on this and really v^e art's 
aid in Advertising.'^ 



CHAPTER XXI 



THE COPY BURDEN 



THERE is nothing accidental about this 
chapter heading — for that is exactly what 
copy always is to a Display — a burden, 
though a necessary burden. 

The Display must carry the load. 

But a great many displays — when you get the 
message all in — refuse to carry. The load is piled 
on — it won't move ! 

There is only one thing to do — lighten the bur- 
den. 

The odd part of it is that — ^however necessary 
that mass of copy may look at first — once you 
make up your mind to throw it overboard, you do 
not miss it ! You have a sense of completeness and 
unity and conviction because your proposition 
stands alone. 

Naturally there's a limit to the number of ideas 
you can get across. 

Crowding results only in confusion— with the 

141 



The 

Copy 

Load 



li 



Reducing 
Copy 



|! 



142 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

chance that not even one idea will get safely 
through because of the mix-up on the threshold cf 
attention. 

You must not try to tell it all — that is the pur- 
pose of your descriptive literature and catalogue. 
Selling value in a window depends not on the 
multiplicity of things shown — whether merchan- 
dise or selling arguments — but on the degree cf 
emphasis. Solid slabs of copy on display material 
mean only one thing — the amateur. ' If you feel 
the need of a long, heart-to-heart talk with each 
individual consumer, mail him a booklet or use a 
double-page spread in The Saturday Evening 
Post 

Nine times out of ten the burden heaped on a 
Window Display is unnecessary. For, after all, 
the chief thing to do is to name or identify the 
product and then back it up with some striking 
suggestion or powerful sales argument. 

Having reduced the burden of copy, therefore, 
to the point where it is physically possible to get it 
all in, there are a number of practical points to 
consider in the method of handling it. 

In the first place — recognize that times have 
changed. 




•C^ 



OCO S i M I 









o 
o 

X 
o 

o 
o 

H 




I 



Reducing 
Copy 



142 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

chance that not even one idea will get safely 
through because of the mix-up on the threshold cf 
attention. 

You must not try to tell it all — that is the pur- 
pose of your descriptive literature and catalogue. 
Selling value in a window depends not on the 
multiplicity of things shown — whether merchan- 
dise or selling arguments — but on the degree cf 
emphasis. Solid slabs of copy on display material 
mean only one thing — the amateur. ' If you feel 
the need of a long, heart-to-heart talk with each 
individual consumer, mail him a booklet or use a 
double-page spread in The Saturday Evening 
Post 

Nine times out of ten the burden heaped on a 
Window Display is unnecessary. For, after all, 
the chief thing to do is to name or identify the 
product and then back it up with some striking 
suggestion or powerful sales argument. 

Having reduced the burden of copy, therefore, 
to the point where it is physically possible to get it 
all in, there are a number of practical points to 
consider in the method of handling it. 

In the first place — recognize that times have 
changed. 











o 
o 



o 



( 



THE COPY BURDEN 



143 



11 



Here again the war has revolutionized things, 
the best artists of the world have bent their talents 
to public posters, cartoons, etc., and all publicity 
has come to be stamped with a higher ideal so that 
old-fashioned commonplaceness no longer answers. 
Public taste has an eye to new effects — and nowhere 
is this more noticeable than in the methods of han- 
dling copy and lettering of all kinds, both with re- 
gard to the style of lettering and its placing. 

Modern lettering avoids crude scrolls and elabo- 
rated shadings and lettering on meaningless curves, 
such as have been identified with old-fashioned 
label designing. 

Instead it calls for grace and sweep that make 
for strength, interest, and readability — spontaneous 
rather than labored effects. Instead of the old- 
time shaded letters, outlined and ornamented with 
scrolls, the modern display signs or cards in favor 
to-day are made with a simple, single stroke or 
"quick brush" lettering effect— which is artful in 
its very artlessness. 

It looks so simple — often careless — but never 
clumsy or commonplace ! 

Modern lettering is a living part of the design 
and not merely "reading matter" plastered over it. 



Modem 
Layouts 
Help Copy 



Modem 
Style of 
Lettering 



144 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Compact 

Copy 

Area 



Easy 

Reading 

Style 






It has compactness, holding itself aloof in blocks 
or panels set oflF by plenty of blank space or con- 
trasts and actually gains in emphasis though re- 
duced in area. 

Modern lettering aims for Legibility with Char- 
acter — the meaningful, not the meaningless.* 

Lower case letters which can be quickly grouped 
into syllables and unconsciously grasped by the 
mind make the message fluent — with just enough 
use of capitals to give contrast and emphasis. 
Lines should be short and few because the eye does 
not easily read long lines of text matter. The 
human attention has a fluttering, wavering quality 
at best and follows the lines of least effort always. 

The more lines, the more compact and regular 
the lettering must be. The burden of copy isn't 
always settled by merely reducing the quantity of 
it. It must be considered also with regard to its 
place in the artist's design — for like the writer of 
newspaper headlines, the display copy writer must 
figure on balance and space and the effect of words, 
as well as their dictionary meaning. 

•Science of optics shows that one third of all brain energy is used up by the 
visual centres. Any abnormal strain of legibility, etc., increases this draft. 



CHAPTER XXII 



CONSTRUCTION AN ALL-IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN 
SUCCESS OF DISPLAYS 

NEW and original design in the matter of 
cardboard display material has the same 
fascination for the dealer that new ideas 
in fixtures have for the professional window dresser. 

Just as the conventional pattern metal-base 
T-stand, etc., so long in use by window dressers, 
gave way before the newer wood and wicker stands, 
racks, frames, and plateaux which have lately come 
on the market, in the same way you will find the 
average dealer at once keenly interested in your 
cardboard displays if they happen to have some 
ingenious points of construction. This of itself 
gives the material an air of novelty and up-to- 
dateness. 

How tired we all get of the same old threadbare 
ideas used over and over! 

A dealer would not consciously reject your dis- 
play solely because it was just a flat card with 

145 



Dealer 
Looking for 
New Ideas 




146 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Street Car 
Cards 



Meet 

Dealer's 

Viewpoint 



square corners, but it's safe to say that in a ques- 
tion of two displays and which to use, a deciding 
factor would be novelty or some little knack of 
construction. 

The unusual is always a drawing card with the 
dealer. 

Street car cards for window use have this big 
objection. Yet large quantities of street car cards 
are sent out every season in place of material spe- 
cifically designed for the dealer and many of these 
cards are thus wasted. Another criticism of car 
cards is that they are absolutely the wrong shape 
for most trims. Where the dealer is not particular 
he does not notice this, but you will find that most 
dealers and the better class of stores will not use 
car cards, as they do not make good displays. 
Moreover, the copy on car cards is often too gen- 
eral, and the dealer wants merchandise points 
whenever possible. Sending car cards to dealers 
as window displays is largely a waste of money. 

Of course with all display material you do want 
your brand name to stand out, as that connects the 
display with your national advertising or news- 
paper or other local campaign in the territory. 
But avoid giving the dealer the idea that you only 



CONSTRUCTION ALL IMPORTANT 147 

want his store space to advertise yourself at his 
expense. Naturally such an impression reduces 
cooperation and cuts down the effectiveness of your 
material. Somebody has said "To preserve the 
efficiency of the individual dealer he must be treated 
as an individual" and his store point of view fully 
respected. Of course an obvious disadvantage 
with street car cards in windows is that they have 
to be propped up, not having any backbone of 
their own. 

The sameness of such cards — uniform dimen- 
sions of 11 X 21— and their lack of individual 
fitness for window purposes make them the less 
desirable from the standpoint of the dealer. 

Hangers from time immemorial have been 
furnished dealers, and doubtless always will be 
the first thought of some manufacturers. The 
objections to them are their commonness and lack 
of distinction. Not being made for any specific 
space or purpose, but just to hang somewhere — 
anywhere— they are usually stuck on the first 
nail or projection without regard to location. 
They represent displays de convenance and not 
true purpose. And of course a hanger is covered 
up by the next hanger that comes along. If a 



The Old- 
time 
Hanger 



) 



Show 
Cards 



Counter 
Stands 



148 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

hanger is desired, however, and there are times 
when it is the most logical display unit, the manu- 
facturer should (if hanger is made of cardboard) 
fit it with a collapsible easel, so that it can be 
used on the counter or in the window without 
toppling over. Dealers like material that will 
stand. 

Show cards — The small show card is always a 
practical type for the dealer, useful in various 
ways, as accessory m.aterial in the window and as 
the attention getter in small unit trims arranged 
on counter or ledge inside the store. Avoid the 
common square flat card as much as possible. Work 
out some novel construction which makes the card 
self-supporting without an added easel. Or where 
an easel card is desired, it is best to give it some 
individual character such as a die-cut effect to 
take away the plain, flat square card suggestion. 
The dealer likes it better, and the display at- 
tracts more attention. 

Counter Display Stands — In the case of small- 
package goods, almost always it is better to devise 
a display stand which will hold the actual product, 
rather than rest content with a flat show card. 
Even in cases where you cannot put the actual 



CONSTRUCTION ALL IMPORTANT 149 



goods on the counter, or corner of the window, you 
do not have to limit yourself to a show card or easel 
card, but can work out some clever and novel col- 
lapsible construction which will lift your advertis- 
ing out of the flat plane and give it a third dimen- 
sion. 

Counter Display Containers — A certain class of 
products, small-package and small-price goods for 
the most part, can best secure dealer space on the 
counter if packed in a well-designed, properly con- 
structed display container which automatically fur- 
nishes both show-card advertising and display of a 
quantity of the actual merchandise. These display, 
containers must of course be specially designed 
otherwise they lack individuality and the dealer is 
less likely to utilize the container. 

Three-panel Screens lend themselves so effectively 
to decorative effect that practically every manu- 
facturer gets out a three-panel screen display 
sometime or other. Their main objection is 
commonness. If a three-panel screen proves, 
after all, to be the best construction for a given 
display, by all means stick to it. But the trouble 
is that three-panel screens are not usually selected 
because they are best but because they are the 



Counter 
Containers 



Three- 
panel 
Screens 



II 



Value of 

Novel 

Construction 



150 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

easiest to think of and easiest for the artist to 
work out! They save gray matter— but adver- 
tising was never helped by this kind of saving! 
On the other hand, a little ingenuity in working 
out a construction that is novel in itself and at 
the same time fits the display idea or picture 
will go a long way toward influencing dealer 
cooperation. 
It's worth this extra effort. 
A good rule is never to decide on a three-panel 
effect until you have rejected some alternate 
constructions and the three-panel proves the best 
for your purpose. In other words, use it because 
it is best— and not because you don't want to 
bother. Professor Clark of Chicago University said 
something when he uttered his caution never to 
accept your first thought but reject it at once and 
think up something else with which to compare 
it— since the first idea is almost sure to be the 
**cork in the bottle" and until it is out of the way 
it stops everything else from flowing. 

Novel construction for cutouts, window dis- 
plays, and counter displays are numerous, but not 
all of them practical. If necessary get hold of a 
real display man and let him work for you. Re- 



14 



CONSTRUCTION ALL IMPORTANT 151 

member that the whole business of display is still 
in its infancy and there are many, many unex- 
plored possibilities waiting for the advertiser who 
is willing to let some creative and experienced mind 
evolve something new and original. 

New ideas cost more and they are worth more. 

The retailer is on the lookout for something new 
if he can get it. 

He knows what gets attention and what gives 
his store prestige. The retailer always welcomes 
a new hind of window display. He knows it's 
good business for its own sake, regardless of 
what it advertises. You can get good dealer co- 
operation in the face of all sorts of trade handi- 
caps — such as cut-price situation, no-profit line, 
staple, or even trade ill-will, if you are just for- 
tunate enough to get hold of something absolutely 
new in display for the dealer. 

Change has a tonic effect on all of us. It's an 
alterative treatment, and in that respect good for 
whatever ails us. 

In fact, one of the prime things in display man- 
agement is to consider well in advance all the 
probabilities to be met with and when there is a 
prospect of less than normal cooperation, the 



■'II 

;l 



Be Sure 
Novel 

Construction 
Is Practical 



152 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

thing to do is not to neglect it on that account 
but use that much more effort and ingenuity to 
solve the problem. 

Now, then, admitting the value of construction 
as a factor in inducing display cooperation, the 
question is how to get it. 

This is one of the interesting sides of display 
planning because it calls for a certain ingenious 
type of mind, plus a childlike joy in "playing" 
with a sheet of cardboard to see what it can be 
coaxed to do. Practical construction requires a 
knowledge of the laws governing the nature of the 
raw material (cardboard) such as grain of the 
stock, warping, coatings, mounting, pasting, scor- 
ing, cutting. Moreover, it calls for engineering 
knowledge of stresses and strains and weights 
which can be supported, plus an architectural 
sense of proportion and harmony and what will 
coordinate best with the needs of the artist, plus 
— an acquired commonsense as to what is and 
what is not practical in cardboard. 



I 



CHAPTER XXIII 

TEE MODERN USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 

ON PAGE one hundred and forty-nine 
mention was made of a certain class of 
products, put up in small packages and 
of popular selling price, which are not only logical 
goods for the dealer to place on top of showcase or 
counter, but which physically lend themselves to 
merchandising via a special display container. 

For instance, in the grocery line, small package 
confection line, toilet-goods, and drug specialty 
and drug sundry lines are to be found many, many 
worthy products which the dealer can be in- 
duced to place directly on the counter instead of 
distributing them in stock on shelves or in drawers 
or bins under the counter. 

Obviously, if the manufacturer does succeed 
in getting the retail store to thus display a partic- 
ular small-package product, the movement of the 
goods is speeded up and both the dealer and the 
manufacturer are benefited. 

153 



Limited to 
Certain 
Slinds of 
Goods 



II 



Obstacle 
to Be 
Overcome 



Goods 
Selected 
for Counter 



154 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

The problem sifts down to this: How to do it? 

Take a moment and look back over the years 
and see first of all what is the natural way of 
treating a particular kind of merchandise when 
received by the dealer: He opens it up, mentally 
classifies it, and more or less automatically assigns 
it a certain place in stock, the choice of this place 
depending on the one big thought of convenience 
— convenience in handling or storing until called 
for, convenience of finding when wanted. 

Once assigned to its "proper" shelf, bin, drawer, 
cabinet, or box, the product is practically "out of 
sight and out of mind" until it is called for. 

From time immemorial this has been the 
natural way of dealing with items of stock — 
the storekeeper of his own initiative from time 
to time selecting specific items for display, being 
activated by one of three personal motives: 

— unusual attraction in the goods themselves, so 
that dealer takes pride in showing them off for 
stock; 

— discovery that he is "stuck" with the goods 
and must deliberately exert himself to "push" them; 

— convenience — goods being unusually salable 
they are placed where they are easiest to see. 















EXAMPLES OF MODERN DISPLAY CONTAINERS 

This type of container is recommended where display is desired, but where 
the customer does not necessarily help himself 



n ■ 

I 



Obstacle 
to Be 
Overcome 






Goods 
Selected 
for Counter 



154 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

The problem sifts down to this: How to do it? 
Take a moment and look back over the years 
and see first of all what is the natural way of 
treating a particular kind of merchandise when 
received by the dealer: He opens it up, mentally 
classifies it, and more or less automatically assigns 
it a certain place in stock, the choice of this place 
depending on the one big thought of convenience 
—convenience in handling or storing until called 
for, convenience of finding when wanted. 

Once assigned to its "proper" shelf, bin, drawer, 
cabinet, or box, the product is practically "out of 
sight and out of mind" until it is called for. 

From time immemorial this has been the 
natural way of dealing with items of stock — 
the storekeeper of his owti initiative from time 
to time selecting specific items for display, being 
activated by one of three personal motives: 

— unusual attraction in the goods themselves, so 
that dealer takes pride in showing them off for 
stock; 

— discovery that he is "stuck" with the goods 
and must deliberately exert himself to "push" them; 

— convenience — goods being uimsually salable 
they are placed where they are easiest to see. 



^ 



'^^A 










M.^^ 






^^ 





EXAMPLES OF MODERN DISPLAY CONTAINERS 

This type of container is recommended where display is desired, but wliere 
the customer does not necessarily help himself 



i 

i. 




Crisp and Flaky 





GOODRICH 



u *. 



ITS THE BORAX IN THE SOAP 
: THAT DOES THE WORK 



GombiMrtiMiRMMirSlwct 



m^mmmm 



GOODRICH 

Crtirtkindtion Rtji^ir Slkeel 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE COUNTER CONTAINER 

The elevation of the box, and the rigidly supported display card, are 

important features of this type 



USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 



155 



Counter space, being recognized as the most 
valuable selling space in the whole store, is always 
at a premium. Space competition is keen. Nat- 
urally that product has the most likely chance 
for the counter which is 

— superior in attraction 

— profitable for dealer to sell. 

Keep in mind that we are talking now of 
strictly small-package goods, of popular appeal 
and popular price. The dealer recognizes these 
largely as "impulse goods" since purchases are 
almost entirely unpremeditated when the customer 
enters the store. 

Some manufacturers first tried the plan of packing 
their dozens or half dozens in good quality outside 
cartons so that the dealer could place these nicely 
printed boxes open on the counter. This served 
the purpose of holding the httle packages together, 
but the inverted box cover with letters upside 
down had absolutely no sales or advertising value 
on the counter. The dealer had to make a httle 
card lettered with the product's name and stick 
it in top of the open box — or simply trust to the 
little packages advertising themselves. Before 
long it came to be seen that the printing of these 



Display 
Box Im- 
practical 



I 




Goodrich 

Rubber Cement 




c-s'A" Bars 

Crisp And Ftaky 






GOODmCH 



BMMirShfMt 



ITS THE BORAX IN THE SOAP 
: THAT DOES THE WORK 



I 



GOODRICH 



Combination 



Rfi>.«ir Sheet 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE C'OrXTEK COXTAINER 

The elevation of the hox, and the rigidly supported display card, are 

important features of this type 



USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 



155 



Counter space, being recognized as the most 
valuable selling space in the whole store, is always 
at a premium. Space competition is keen. Nat- 
urally that product has the most likely chance 
for the counter which is 

— superior in attraction 

— profitable for dealer to sell. 

Keep in mind that we are talking now of 
strictly small-package goods, of popular appeal 
and popular price. The dealer recognizes these 
largely as "impulse goods" since purchases are 
almost entirely unpremeditated when the customer 
enters the store. 

Some manufacturers first tried the plan of packing 
their dozens or half dozens in good quality outside 
cartons so that the dealer could place these nicely 
printed boxes open on the counter. This served 
the purpose of holding the httle packages together, 
but the inverted box cover with letters upside 
down had absolutely no sales or advertising value 
on the counter. The dealer had to make a little 
card lettered with the product's name and stick 
it in top of the open box — or simply trust to the 
little packages advertising themselves. Before 
long it came to be seen that the printing of these 



Display 
Box Im- 
practical 



What Is 
a Display 
Container? 



'^ 



n 



156 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

handsome boxes was waste — they did not prompt 
the dealer to give the goods counter space, and he 
merely shucked them off the goods and dumped 
the little packets in the most convenient bin or 
cabinet or drawer, the same as before. 

Necessity is the mother of invention. Out 
of this growing need of advertisers of small-package 
products came the modem display container. 

A display container is not merely a packing 
carton for small goods. 
It is not merely a handsome box. 
It is a folding carton so devised that it answers 
the purpose at the factory of a secure container 
for holding a given quantity of goods, but at the 
same time converts itself into a counter display 
ready-packed with the goods, when the container 
is opened up by the dealer. 

It is, in fact, an "original package" taking the 
place of the usual straw-board or printed card- 
board box, but it is more than that as soon as it 
reaches the dealer, because it is a self-display. 
The dealer opens this "original package" and 
— presto, it changes form in his hands and he 
sees before him a complete attractive display 
unit for his counter. 



USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 157 

The evolution of these folding display containers 
is one of the interesting things in advertising and 
merchandising. 

There are on the market to-day several styles 
which have proved extraordinarily successful. 
An immense amount of ingenuity has been ex- 
pended on this one problem of perfecting the idea 
of a self-display container, which everybody ad- 
mitted v/as a valuable idea. Like all ideas it had 
to be disciplined to make it behave and particu- 
larly to make it stand up in actual practice. 

The picture shows a group of different style 
patented containers, representing the most pop- 
ular kinds on the market. 

The question may well be asked — WTiat makes 
a good display container.^ 

The answer depends on the kind of product. 

A display container must suit the nature of the 
small package and also the quantity the manu- 
facturer uses as unit of sale. It m.ust hold the 
unit, protect the goods, facilitate handling in 
shipping, jobbing, etc., provide identification 
throughout all distributing agencies, and it must 
arrive safe and sound with the goods at the 
dealer s. Having got that far its function now 



I 



Various 

Types 

Available 



Features to 
Consider 



' ♦ 



• ( 



158 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Merchan- 
dising 
Value of 
Containers 



changes to one of service for the retailer. What 
was apparently a mere package becomes a display 
for the counter. It now proves its individual use- 
fulness not only as a container for the merchandise 
but as a silent salesman. 

Containers are like people and have their own 
characteristics. Some can't stand the gaff, get 
wobbly, and go out of existence. Some lack in- 
dividuality at the very start, or can't hold up 
their heads or are otherwise bashful in pushing 
their product. 

Not all products are adapted for counter con- 
tainer display. 

But where the product fits into this distinctly 
most modern method of merchandising the manu- 
facturer has everything to gain. It keeps the goods 
and the display together and it insures actual use 
of display because it is easier for the dealer to use 
the goods as they arrive than it is to discard the 
novel folding container. Moreover, the display 
survives on the counter until the last packet is 
sold. 

Of course it increases the individual dealer's sales 
— counter display will always do that for a product. 

Many of the big spectacular successes in recent 




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C r= 



f. 



H^ 5 



O 

>• 
O 

o 

D 
C 

w 

en 



1^ o 









a 



J2 



158 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



i 



Merchan- 
dising 
Value of 
Containers 



changes to one of service for the retailer. What 
was apparently a mere package becomes a display 
for the counter. It now proves its individual use- 
fulness not only as a container for the merchandise 
but as a silent salesman. 

Containers are like people and have their own 
characteristics. Some can't stand the gaff, get 
wobbly, and go out of existence. Some lack in- 
dividuality at the very start, or can't hold up 
their heads or are otherwise bashful in pushing 
their product. 

Not all products are adapted for counter con- 
tainer display. 

But where the product fits into this distinctly 
most modern method of merchandising the manu- 
facturer has everything to gain . It keeps the goods 
and the display together and it insures actual use 
of display because it is easier for the dealer to use 
the goods as they arrive than it is to discard the 
novel folding container. Moreover, the display 
survives on the counter until the last packet is 
sold. 

Of course it increases the individual dealer's sales 
— counter display will always do that for a product. 

Many of the big spectacular successes in recent 







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USE OF DISPLAY CONTAINERS 159 



years have owed a big part of their results to this 
device of getting dealers to put the new product 
up on the counter where it could be seen by the 
public— "Life Savers" and "Charms" are good 
examples of quick and fast work based on this 
fundamental method of merchandising. 

Without specially devised display containers in 
which the goods reached the dealer all ready for 
use as display there would have been no way of 
getting universal cooperation from the thousands 
of big and little stores, newsstands, lobbies, etc., 
where "Life Savers" and "Charms" were sold. 

Specific individual tests have shown how various 
products react in sales when they are packed in a 
display container which the dealer places on his 
counter. A few of these are appended. 

Flavoring Extract: Sales rose from 68 bottles 

to 154 bottles or 126 per 
cent. 

Dental Cream: ^ Sales rose from 160 tubes to 

417 tubes or 165 per cent. 
Sales rose from 72 to 125 or 

74 per cent. 
Sales rose from 358 pack- 
ages to 1,074 packages, or 
180 per cent. 



Spark Plug; 
Candy: 



Sales 

Increased 

by 

Containers 



( 



r 



Small- 
town 
Consumers 



CHAPTER XXIV 

IMPORTANCE OF THE SMALL-TOWN DEALER 

THE assertion has been made that 82 per 
cent, of all goods sold through retail stores in 
the United States find their outlet through 
dealers in small towns. 

Certainly the small-town field represents a 
tremendous factor in the marketing of any trade- 
marked product. According to Census figures the 
rural population of the country represents half 
the total — 

1910 Census 53.7 per cent, rural 
1920 Census 48.1 per cent, rural 

But the small-town market includes more than 
this rural population. It is necessary to bear in 
mind that the Census classifies as rural population 
in towns up to 2,500; and all above that as urban, 
whether in large or small towns. On the other 
hand, the advertiser includes in his "small-town 
field" all towns of below 10,000 population— a 

160 



THE SMALL-TOWN DEALER 161 

total which approximates 57,000 separate and 
distinct distribution points on the map for na- 
tional advertisers to consider. 

The classification of buying communities in the 
United States, according to 1910 figures (those for 
1920 not being yet available), was as follows: 

51,192 towns under 1,000 population 
2.926 1,000—2,500 

1»073 2,500—5,000 

536 5,000—10,000 

S29 10,000—25,000 

111 25,000—50,000 

58 50,000—100,000 
50 100,000 and over 

Later figures will affect the larger town classifi- 
cations more particularly, hence will not materially 
alter these statements. 

In towns not exceeding 5,000 population it has 
been estimated there are approximately fifty-four 
million people whose every-day wants are served 
by the following; 

141,724 general stores 
33,131 grocery stores 
8,733 dry goods stores 



Most Towns 
Are Small 
Towns 



SmaU- 

town 

Dealers 



"Main 

Street" 

vs. 

WaU Street 






Surprising 
Volume 



162 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

3,035 shoe stores 
25,870 drug stores 

1,474 men's furnishing stores 

9,200 clothing stores 
21,143 hardware stores 
12,463 jewelry stores 

It is these facts which lead one magazine writer 
to exclaim back in March, 1915, "The really big 
business is not done in the big cities or near Wall 
Street. It is done on Main Street— the principal 
business thoroughfare of the little cities, the towns, 
and the villages— the street where the leading shops 
of the place are." 

"Main Street," said Edward James in To-day's 
Magazine, March, 1915, "is the longest street in 
the United States, the richest and most substan- 
tial, the most vital to the commercial life of the 
whole country. The business that goes on in 
Main Street day and night, week in and week out, 
would make the popular conception of big business 
look like a drop in a bucket if the two aggregates 
could be compared." 

Magazines like System have cited interesting 
cases of big business built up by individual enter- 



THE SMALL-TOWN DEALER 



163 



prise of some small-town dealer — in spectacular 
cases running from a half milHon to a million-dollar 
volume. Such successes are exceptional. But do 
they not point a moral to the story and show how 
vastly business in small towns can be augmented 
by simple attention to modern merchandising 
methods.^ As for the average volume of business, 
it undoubtedly is higher than the average for the 
same type of store in the big cities. In the town 
of Blanchester, O., of less than two thousand popu- 
lation, reports by Walter W. Manning of Woman'' s 
World, in 1915, showed that four dry goods stores 
shared an annual business of $110,000 from this 
community, the three hardware stores had a com- 
bined volume of $120,000, and the ten grocery out- 
lets totalled $140,000. 

All this in a strictly "rural" community as 
classed by the Census enumerator, namely, a town 
under 2,000 population. 

The dealer in the small town is almost sure to be 
a leading spirit in the community. His individual 
influence is something to consider, even more than 
is that of the big city distributor. He comes in 
close everyday contact with his public. He cannot 
bank on the shiftings and changings of new trade. 



Closer to 
Community 






Needs of 

Small-town 

Dealer 



164 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

he must make good with his permanent public. 
He is the dealer who most needs help from the 
manufacturer, and as a general thing he responds 
to help most readily, if properly put to him by the 
manufacturer. His faults are almost wholly due 
to lack of breadth of view — or, in other words, lack 
of experience. His heart is all right— namely, in 
his future business success. He can therefore be 
approached from this angle, and if intelligently 
handled is more than grateful for the help which 
one of greater merchandising acumen and advertis- 
ing experience can give him. 

Clearly it is up to the manufacturer to supply 
whatever the handicapped small-town dealer lacks 
in the way of initiative and experience. 

Dealer-display plans offer the most practical 
cooperation for the dealer on Main Street. To 
quote from Walter M. Manning's survey, the small- 
town dealer almost invariably "feels a pride in his 
windows, he would like to have them look well to 
please himself; but the larger idea of realizing their 
sales value and putting the pep into them in such 
a way that they will not only look attractive but 
sell goods and keep the best trade in town by creat- 
ing desire, is a few steps beyond his imagination." 



THE SMALL-TOWN DEALER 



165 



Out of 631 retailers in small towns interviewed 
by the Woman's World in 1915 in towns of from 
750 to 3,000 population, practically an overwhelm- 
ing majority showed willingness to cooperate with 
National Brand advertising as follows: 

Question No. 1 Do you like to have manu- 
facturers send you win- 
dow trims. f^ 

Answer: 553 said Yes 
39 said No 
39 no answer 

Question No. 2 Do you like to carry adver- 
tised goods if they show 
you a profit on cost of 
doing business .f' 

Answer: 532 said Yes 
62 said No 
37 no answer 

In these one-street towns, containing perhaps 
fifty, seventy -five, or a hundred stores, the main 
business street is sure to be a promenade and a 
really good display gets practically 100 per cent. 



Potency of 
Displays 



4 '1^ 



**Passersby" 
in Small 
Towns 



166 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

attention-^ccasionally a mention in the social 
column of the local paper. Everybody sees it-^ 
and half of everybody is very likely to comment 
on it, so that a good display earns additional word- 
of-mouth advertising. Moreover, with the least 
effort, it can be made to earn something even 
more tangible than this-for if the display is 
featured to the small-town dealer as a store sell- 
ing plan for him individually, it is very easy to get 
him not only to use the display but to spend his 
own money in the local papers to run electros or 
other advertising furnished by the manufacturer. 
In fact, there are limitless opportunities for add- 
ing considerable of "unearned increment" to the 
advertising investment for cooperation of the 
small-town dealer. 

In small towns it is safe to estimate that from 
300 to 500 persons pass the average dealer's store 
m a day. These passersby are "circulation" 
just as readers for a magazine constitute its cir- 
culation. The circulation for a small-town dealer's 
window is somewhat different from that of the 
big cities— it is a circulation more select in 
quality because the passerby has more time 
to look, has a more positive attitude toward 



THE SMALL-TOWN DEALER 



167 



(hat individual dealer, so that the advertising is 
associated with the store selling the goods per- 
manently. In most cases, also, the ability to buy 
compares more favorably. 

That manufacturers owe more attention to the 
small-town dealer cannot be questioned. The 
small-town dealer is the logical victim of the new 
disease of "mail-order buying" which is a product 
of faulty present distribution methods. What- 
ever helps distribution will help the small-town 
dealer. More complete small-town distribution 
will make it easier for the consumer to get what he 
wants without the trouble and risk of "sending 
off for it." And one of the best aids in lining up 
small-town distribution, and at the same time one 
of the best guarantees of "keeping the home trade 
at home" after distribution is secured, is to furnish 
the small-town dealer with a ready-made store 
display selling plan. 

More and more advertisers appreciate this fact. 

The turning point has undoubtedly been reached, 
and the next five years will see tremendous im- 
provement in using to 100 per cent, efficiency the 
waiting machinery for small-town distribution — the 
more than a quarter billion retail outlets to transact 



Help 
Needed 



Selected 
Dealer or 
Mass of 
Dealers? 



168 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

business on more than fifty thousand "Main 
Streets." 

One common failing with many advertisers is 
to think of their dealers in terms of the ultra se- 
lect, in big cities. Subconsciously, they measure 
all display material with the challenge "Will 
Macy, will Altman use it.?" "WTiat will Wana- 
maker do.?" In considering dealer display as a 
medium, the advertiser must learn to think in 
mass, in volume of display windows. It is not the 
exceptional but the average he must consider. 
Important as the big independent store may be 
for prestige or actual sales for the product, do not 
confuse this issue with the broad general problem 
of dealer cooperation— the use of displays by the 
great mass of dealers, big and little stores, which 
constitute your national distribution. No na- 
tional advertiser measures his national copy to 
fit exactly Macy or Wanamaker, but to fit the 
average dealer wherever located. It is the aver- 
age dealer that produces, in total, the big volume 
of business. 



1/ 



CHAPTER XXV 

HOW DISPLAYS MAY BE USED TO EDUCATE DEALER 

AND CLERKS 

A WELL-KNOWN psychologist comments 
on the fact that it is physically impossible 
for the average man or woman to keep 
in mind the name and special arguments for more 
than a half dozen brands of a given commodity — 
whereas there might be running full tilt some 
twenty to forty conspicuous advertising cam- 
paigns in that one line. 

Even a seasoned advertising man who has been 
studying Brand Advertising for over a decade 
will find it something of a poser to clearly and 
accurately set down the specific arguments differ- 
entiating each of three or four brands from one 
another. 

Isn't it folly, then, for some manufacturers to 
rail at the dealer and more particularly the dealer's 
clerk for the fault of not "appreciating" selling 
arguments.? 

169 



Retailer 
Unable to 
Remember 
EverjTthing 



t|j,; 



Customer 

Knowledge 

vs. 

Dealer 

Knowledge 



170 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

The druggist carrying more than three thousand 
separate items in regular stock, and the grocer 
carrying from a thousand to two thousand 
may be excused for lapses in merchandise knowl- 
edge. 

The truth is that the Modern Advertiser has 
started something which now he must finish— 
and he cannot finish it until he bridges the gap 
between the General Publicity and the Consumer- 
Ready-to-Buy at the dealer's. 

Just as small-town merchants learned to their 
sorrow that mail-order houses could coach the 
customer to a point where the customer would 
know a great deal more about the goods than did 
the merchant himself, just so dealers in general 
are face to face with the problem of dealing in 
Brands, whereas the consumer is sold on some 
specific argument. 

Reason Why advertising is foolish if the Ad- 
vertiser does not guard against the breakdown of 
argument when the customer sizes up the goods 
at the dealer's. It is putting a pretty long strain 
on General Publicity to expect it to stretch over 
time and spac^-often months and miles away 
from the actual sale. Many a customer who has 



EDUCATE DEALER AND CLERKS 171 

been worked up to enthusiasm and loyalty for a 
Brand is discouraged by the cold attitude of the 
clerk or dealer who knows only the name and price 
of the commodity. It is dangerous to trust that 
consumer enthusiasm will in time "educate" those 
back of the counter. The dealer's coldness may 
quench more than the consumer's desire can 
warm — and so another sale is lost. 

Out of this situation has arisen a real and dis- 
tinct function for display material— to serve first 
of all as a sales coach and prompter for the retailer. 
A piece of display material can be made to fur- 
nish the merchandise facts essential to closing 
the actual sale, and do this without losing its es- 
sential display value. In other words, a dealer 
display occupies a middle ground between a bill- 
board and a magazine or newspaper advertisement 
-—and for that reason frequently permits of more 
copy than the former, though always less than the 
latter. These bits of copy, however, should never 
be spread over the main display, but kept as com- 
pact as possible— entirely subordinate to the 
main domination. 

Suppose, for instance, you are a manufacturer 
of a dental cream and your dealers carry in stock 



Display 
Should 
Coach the 
Dealer 






Keeping 
Track of 
Merchandise 
Facts 



172 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

on an average some twenty different well-known 
brands of tooth paste. Your national advertis- 
ing is doing well if in addition to giving your name 
dominance it interests the customer in your 
selling argument. But isn't it too much to expect 
that the average dealer or clerk will instantly 
recall that argument or be able to classify the 
twenty different brands that happen to be in 
stock, according to the facts which serve to 
differentiate one dentifrice from another? For 
instance. 

Which dentifrices advertised are friction clean- 
ers? 

WTiich dentifrices cleanse by saponification? 
AATiich dentifrices have quahty of antisepsis or 

other medication? 
A^Tiich dentifrices have bleaching action? 
^Miich dentifrices have been on market longest 

and how do they rank in seniority? 
WTiich dentifrices have exclusive or spectacular 

sales argument? 

Safe to say there are a good many men on the 
road selling tooth paste who could not pass such 



EDUCATE DEALER AND CLERKS 173 

an examination. Then why the mere clerk? 
Even dentists with a professional interest in the 
varied arguments would in many cases confuse 
some well-advertised names with other well- 
advertised arguments. This is simply because 
both the salesman and the dentist, like the 
dealer and the clerk, are human beings first of all, 
and the human mind tends to fuse together a 
multiplicity of impressions. 

This is just an example. The same situation 
applies to many everyday articles which seek to 
distinguish themselves through brand emphasis 
and striking arguments. 

The right kind of display material will do more 
than anything else tG set the store on the right 
track as regards a particular dentifrice— or face 
cream, flavoring extract, house paint, or cocoa. 
It is the next best thing to a heart-to-heart talk 
from your own personal representative calling on 
the dealer, and it has the advantage of talking 
to the clerk when not too busy to listen, also of 
being right there for timely help when the sale is 
about to be made. 

Moreover, on the back of the cutout or counter 
display or display container there is always space 



utaizing 

Display to 

Educate 

Dealer 



174 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

available for "educating" the clerk. This is 
the best of all space for direct dealer copy- 
particularly that on the back of display stands or 
containers which are up on the counter and there- 
fore continuously before the clerk or dealer. This 
space should be utilized, preferably in some con- 
crete way, with specific helpful suggestions. 
With cutouts or window material some sort of 
letter or circular illustrated with suggestive dia- 
grams or picture should be sent to the dealer. 
Often the best way is to paste this right on the 
back of the display. 

In this way displays may be used to educate 
the retailer and establish more intelligent co- 
operation. Of course never ask the unreasonable. 
Entirely too little study has been given to this 
educative function of display material. 

In many, many cases a display pays for itself 
even before the dealer receives it, in that he sees a 
sample of it or a picture of it at the time his order 
is solicited, whether by personal salesman or 
folder, and this helps to concentrate his attention 
on the real selling arguments. 

The manufacturer who is investing in display 
material and not at the same time using that 



EDUCATE DEALER AND CLERKS 175 

material first of all to help educate the prospective 
dealer, and to reach the dealer who has already 
bought, likewise the clerk back of the counter, is 
surely blindfold to a valuable function of display 
material. He is cheating himself of an opportu- 
nity. 



Plan for 
Series of 
Displays 



CHAPTER XXVI 

CONTINUITY IN PLANNED DEALER DISPLAY 

UP TO this point practically all discussion 
of dealer display has been with respect 
to the single problem of individual dis- 
play — what a certain display should be, how to 
get it used, what could be expected of it, etc. 

But there is still untouched a vast new field of 
study in the power of continuity in planned dealer 
display. Not one "lucky strike" dealer display 
campaign, but a real continuous utilization of 
dealer display as a regular medium. 

Just as there was a time when manufacturers 
bought so-called displays piece by piece, as fancy 
or emergency dictated, with no real purpose or 
plan as to how the individual "dealer help" would 
fit in and have an integral part in the whole selling 
proposition — just so even now, while all wide- 
awake advertisers are alert to the importance of 
planning before rather than after they have bought 
the display material, it is indeed the exception for a 

176 






CONTINUITY IN DEALER DISPLAY 177 



manufacturer to work out — carefully in advance- 



a real schedule or series of displays which will give 
to his product continuity of display at the dealer's. 

Continuity in Advertising is a principle which 
no man will dispute. But it still remains to apply 
this principle to dealer display advertising. 

The value of cumulative returns for all other 
forms of advertising is something no longer de- 
batable. What advertising man would counte- 
nance the old-time ignorance of publicity laws 
which resulted in the timid advertiser who de- 
nounced advertising because he "tried it once — 
it didn't pay." 

The only orthodox view is reflected in the oft- 
repeated warning — "The one-time Ad almost 
never pays." 

But with dealer display it has paid and it al- 
ways will pay, because display is a selling method 
as well as an advertising method. This only 
goes to show that there are some things which 
differentiate Dealer display advertising from all 
other mediums. It always will have certain 
differences. It is these differences that require 
study in order to get success from the use of dis- 
play material. And yet it is none the less true 



Cumulativ* 
Value of 
Series 






Few Manu- 
facturers 
Awake to 
Value of 
Series 



178 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



that dealer display advertising, just like other 
forms of advertising, grows as it goes, like a snow- 
ball rolling up and accreting to itself a vast 
power in proportion to its steady use and growth. 
Continuity in dealer display practically does 
not exist in the advertising world to-day, if you 
except those permanent forms of dealer reminder 
or identification consisting of painted signs on 
store fronts, permanent window transparents, etc., 
which are necessarily limited to mere brand 
publicity, as distinct from salesmanship. The 
value of this permanent chain-store link up or 
identification, first made famous by the United 
Cigar Stores and later adopted by nationally ad- 
vertised products such as Pillsbury's Flour, Coco 
Cola, Firestone Tires, and many others, cannot be 
questioned, whether considered purely from its 
billboard value based on passerby traffic, or the 
specific announcing where the goods are for sale. 
But naturally there are limitations as to the kind 
of products that could get such store identifica- 
tion, whereas these very same advertisers have 
open before them the broad field of opportunity 
of using time after time, at stated selling seasons, 
both window and counter space. 



CONTINUITY IN DEALER DISPLAY 179 

Early in the memorable year of 1920 — when knit 
goods was one of the first lines to feel the tendency 
to slackened demand which made a debacle of the 
entire famous "Sellers' Market" — one of the leading 
manufacturer advertisers in that field turned to 
dealer display in the effort to boost up sales. He 
felt satisfied that if dealers could be persuaded to 
make a feature of his particular brand of under- 
wear, displaying it more than they had ever done 
before — if there was some way to get them to con- 
tinually show that particular merchandise, putting 
it in the window for display again and again and 
keeping it on display inside the store a large part 
of the time — that each dealer would sell far more 
than he would if he did nothing more than he had 
been accustomed to doing in other years. The 
question was : Could this manufacturer get dealers 
to push the Brand harder than ever and in that 
way more than make up slack business.'* Would 
the dealer be willing to do this — would he fall in 
line with the program if inaugurated.'* Obvi- 
ously the only person who could answer that ques- 
tion was the individual dealer — so a carefully 
worded letter was sent to a list of dealers, by the 
manufacturer himself, with absolutely no attempt 



Dealers 
Ready for 
Series 




Manufac- 
turer 

Multiplied 
Trade's 
Cooperation 



180 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

to specify the particular kind of display or to " sell " 
the dealer on the value of display material. The re- 
plies were obtained by mail and showed over 67 per 
cent, were ready and willing to fall in line with this 
manufacturer's program, which called for a series 
of three different and complete displays, each 
consisting of its own specific cutout and auxiliary 
window material, together with a connective dis- 
play inside the store on the counter. 

In other words, this manufacturer proved to him- 
self not only that his dealers would cooperate in 
using dealer help material but that they would give 
three times as much cooperation as the manufacturer 
had ever asked before. 

Similarly in the paint field: One very large 
manufacturer had just furnished a new complete 
window display for his dealers, when he was urged 
to follow this up with a letter in order to check 
how many dealers used the display, and at the same 
time to find out whether these same dealers could 
utilize more displays for other specialties in this 
same family of products. This was only a mail 
test but it likewise showed that a lot of possible 
cooperation was being wasted because it wasn't 
asked for: 




o 



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a 
z 

< 

as 
S5 

> . 

< 



180 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 




^ 



Manufac- 
turer 

Multiplied 
Trade's 
Cooperation 



to specify the particular kind of display or to " sell " 
the dealer on the value of display material. The re- 
plies were obtained by mail and showed over 67 per 
cent, were ready and willing to fall in line with this 
manufacturer's program, which called for a series 
of three different and complete displays, each 
consisting of its o^vn speciiSc cutout and auxiliary 
window material, together with a connective dis- 
play inside the store on the counter. 

In other words, this manufacturer proved to him- 
self not only that his dealers would cooperate in 
using dealer help material but that they would give 
three times as viuch cooperation as the manufacturer 
had ever asked before. 

Similarly in the paint field: One very large 
manufacturer had just furnished a new complete 
window display for his dealers, when he was urged 
to follow this up with a letter in order to check 
how many dealers used the displa3%and at the same 
time to find out whether these same dealers could 
utilize more displays for other specialties in this 
same family of products. This was only a mail 
test but it likewise showed that a lot of possible 
cooperation was being wasted because it wasn't 
asked for : 





CONTINUITY IN DEALER DISPLAY 181 

72.2 per cent, of these dealers wanted more 

frequent cooperation 
64.6 per cent, of these dealers wanted other 

products worked up in displays 



For a long, long time it has been the fashion to 
berate the dealer for lack of cooperation. 

For a long, long time advertisers have vied with 
each other as to who could tell the most scandalous 
tale of waste of help material by dealers. Stories 
of the roaring furnace which dealers keep fired 
with manufacturers' expensive advertising material 
are getting to be like old witch tales — part of the 
legendary lore of the childhood of advertising. 

"Efficiency higher up" is a pretty good rule to 
work by. More efficient use of display material 
will come when advertisers learn to plan with the 
dealer motives in view — and more efficient use of 
the untouched and undreamed-of display coopera- 
tion will come when manufacturers study this 
question from the ground up, from first-hand in- 
formation, rather than taking for granted that 
they cannot get efficient backing of the particular 
selling campaign by the individual dealer. 

You never know till you try — that's certain. 



Manufac- 
turers 
Overlook 
True 
Situation 




CONTINUITY IN DEALER DISPLAY 181 

72.2 per cent, of these dealers wanted more 

frequent cooperation 
64.6 per cent, of these dealers wanted other 

products worked up in displays 

For a long, long time it has been the fashion to 
berate the dealer for lack of cooperation. 

For a long, long time advertisers have vied with 
each other as to who could tell the most scandalous 
tale of waste of help material by dealers. Stories 
of the roaring furnace which dealers keep fired 
with manufacturers' expensive advertising material 
are getting to be like old witch tales — part of the 
legendary lore of the childhood of advertising. 

"Efficiency higher up" is a pretty good rule to 
work by. More efficient use of display material 
will come when advertisers learn to plan with the 
dealer motives in view — and more efficient use of 
the untouched and undreamed-of display coopera- 
tion will come when manufacturers study this 
question from the ground up, from first-hand in- 
formation, rather than taking for granted that 
they cannot get efficient backing of the particular 
selling campaign by the individual dealer. 

You never know till you try — that's certain. 



Manufac- 
turers 
Overlook 
True 
Situation 



Scheduled 
Plan 

Needed for 
Displays 



Practise 
Forethought 



182 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Manufacturers plan their schedules for other 
advertising— why not plan dealer display a year in 
advance? What more logical than to provide for 
connective dealer material right along with the 
campaign? The advantages would be manifold, 
insuring not only closer tie-up with other scheduled 
advertising according to season, but greater unity 
in the material. Some economies might even be 
effected, for example, by planning colors and sizes 
for a combination run. One common weakness 
would automatically be overcome—the material 
would be sure to be ready in time for incorporating 
it in the salesman's canvas, and it would take its 
place as a definite house policy, a factor in the 
whole season's selling plan. 

Such a method of handling dealer display would 
surely result in better cooperation all down the 
line— salesmen, jobbers, and dealers. The series of 
displays, flashing out in timed season at the dealers, 
would tighten the grip of national advertising on 
each specific community, making it far more pro- 
ductive. 

There has been too much of the "afterthought" 
in display material. What it needs is forethought, 
the same as any other advertising. Thinking for 



CONTINUITY IN DEALER DISPLAY 183 

the future compels close study and serious analysis, 
where thinking pop-out-of-the-box tends to half- 
baked ideas, impractical constructions, hasty exe- 
cution, and inefficient distribution. 

A few careful advertisers have led the way. 

But eventually this truth will be recognized by 
all advertisers, that there can be no scientific man- 
agement of dealer display without thinking con- 
nectively, planning not one but a series of displays 
over a period of time, providing for continuity at 
the dealer's. 



IS! 



II 



Types of 

Permanent 

Signs 



CHAPTER XXVII 

PERMANENT DISPLAY AT THE DEALER'S 

A DISTINCTION was drawn in the pre- 
ceding chapter between continuity in 
L dealer display and permanent identifica- 
tion at the dealer's. 

Permanent identification includes all the varied 
forms of advertising signs which admit of being 
applied directly to the store front, with the in- 
tention of remaining there indefinitely. The fol- 
lowing are the most common: 

Painted signs across the top of dealer's windows. 

Metal signs nailed below the window or on side 

of building. 

Transparencies running across the top of the 

dealer's window. 

Small transparencies applied to the window pane 

or door pane. 

Decalcomania or transfers applied to the win- 
dow or door pane. 



^ 



PERMANENT DISPLAY AT THE DEALER'S 185 

Enameled, white or gold letters applied directly 

to window or door pane. 

Mention has already been made (page 178) 
of the successful use of permanent store identi- 
fication. It is customary to give credit for the 
first systematic use of this plan to George Whelan 
of the United Cigar Stores, and he definitely 
demonstrated in a spectacular way the advertis- 
ing possibilities of the store front by painting the 
name boldly across the top of the window. 

The famous Douglas $3 shoe adopted the plan of 
identifying and unifying the local store with the 
general publicity by a similar method or plan of 
treating the store front window pane. There 
are many others but like Douglas, Atlantic 
Pacific Tea Co., United Cigar Stores, etc., all of 
these concerns distributed their products through 
their own branch stores. It remained for na- 
tional advertisers to go this plan one better and 
apply the same principle to the thousands of stores 
where the advertised products were on sale. 

Coca Cola was one of the very first to appropri- 
ate this idea and adapt it to its own requirements. 
One of the dominating principles of S. C. Dobbs, 
who was largely responsible for the growth of Coca 



Success 

in 

Use 



Coca 
Cola 



■J» 




186 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Cola, was to cultivate the dealer and keep the 
trade mark prominent wherever Coca Cola was 
for sale. He recognized one great advantage 
possessed by dealer help material— namely, that 
it connected up with the national campaign and 
quickly brought home to the passerby the fact 
that the dealer's store was the place where the 
desire, created by national advertising, could be 
satisfied. 

At first. Coca Cola adopted the plan of painting 
the brand name at the top of their dealers' win- 
dows. The expense and slowness of this method 
proved to be a decided disadvantage in view of the 
fact that their distribution was universal. The 
result was that a large number of their distributors 
were supplied with large transparent signs run- 
ning across the top of the dealers' windows. 

Considerable experimenting was required to 
make these signs so they would fit widely differ- 
ent store fronts, but the problem was solved by 
reason of careful investigation and analysis and 
the results have been highly satisfactory. This 
marked the first departure from the long estab- 
lished small transparent signs, which were so popu- 
lar with advertisers for many years. 




IHLLinUrS \ 



m.m[ 



DRUGS: 



SQDA 



ENEII@ 



CIGARS 



THE DRY CLEANER 






HOW COCA COLA USES THE DEALEr's WINDOW FOR 

PERMANENT DISPLAY 




PERMANENT DISPLAY FOR SIMOiNDS SAWS ON 
H A R D W ARE WIN DOW 



41' 



186 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

Cola, was to cultivate the dealer and keep the 
trade mark prominent wherever Coca Cola was 
for sale. He recognized one great advantage 
possessed by dealer help material— namely, that 
it connected up with the national campaign and 
quickly brought home to the passerby the fact 
that the dealer's store was the place where the 
desire, created by national advertising, could be 
satisfied. 

At first. Coca Cola adopted the plan of painting 
the brand name at the top of their dealers' win- 
dows. The expense and slowness of this method 
proved to be a decided disadvantage in view of the 
fact that their distribution was universal. The 
result was that a large number of their distributors 
were supplied with large transparent signs run- 
ning across the top of the dealers' windows. 

Considerable experimenting was required to 
make these signs so they would fit widely differ- 
ent store fronts, but the problem was solved by 
reason of careful investigation and analysis and 
the results have been highly satisfactory. This 
marked the first departure from the long estab- 
lished small transparent signs, which were so popu- 
lar with advertisers for many years. 




now COCA COLA USES THE DEALEr's WINDOW FOR 

PERMANENT DISPLAY 




PERMANENT DISPLAY FOR SIMO.NDS SAWS ON 
HARDWARE WINDOW 



PERMANENT DISPLAY AT THE DEALER'S 187 



] 



f 



The space at the top of the dealer's window is 
very valuable space and it can be procured if the 
dealer is properly approached. 

One method of procuring this most valuable 
space is to feature the dealer, not only the adver- 
tised product, as shown on the plate opposite. 

You can secure very large dominant space at 
the top of the dealer's window for your product 
if you remember that the dealer as well as the 
manufacturer must benefit. This is most valu- 
able space and it can be secured absolutely free 
and for a long time by the proper attention to 
planning. Do not forget that it is the dealer's 
window, and that you are getting most valuable 
space, and the dealer, therefore, must be consid- 
ered—it cannot be a one-sided proposition adver- 
tising your product only. 

Small transparencies and transfers (decalco- 
manias) have proved very popular with advertis- 
ers and dealers alike. These small signs when 
properly designed have been well received by 
dealers, and being very light and easily handled, 
salesmen, when properly sold and instructed, can 
very frequently put them on the window while 
making their regular rounds, and the signs remain 



Careful 

Planning 

Necessary 



Success 
of Small 
Signs 



XJnusual 
Advantages 







Decalco- 
manias and 
Transparent 
Signs 



188 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

there permanently. These signs have not only 
reminder value, linking up with other advertising, 
but they have also a cumulative value of their own! 
Permanent store-front publicity is without ques- 
tion a medium that insures circulation at a lesser 
cost per thousand than any other known adver- 
tising medium. Furthermore, the advertising is 
done where the goods are sold, and there is less 
opportunity for forgetting because of the reminder 
on the window. 

The manufacturer must bear in mind that this 
space is available and has been secured and can 
be secured when the sales force is properly in- 
structed. If for any reason the sales force is not 
to be used, or cannot be used to place these signs, 
it is well worth while to put on a special man or 
crew, and even with this added cost, permanent 
store-front publicity is a most economical and 
worthwhile investment. 

A distinction should be drawn between trans- 
fers (decalcomanias) and transparencies. WTiile 
these are used for the same purpose, the process of 
manufacture and results are entirely different. 
The decalcomania sign is the development of a 
process that was originated and used for many 



PERMANENT DISPLAY AT THE DEALER»S 189' 

years for decorating pottery, china, glassware, 
and other products. Decalcomanias are made 
with a paper backing and the design which is 
lithographed on this paper backing is transferred 
to the glass or other substance and at the proper 
time the paper backing, loosened by moisture, is 
removed. 

If this is done carefully, the design, barring 
accidents, remains on the glass, but is opaque be- 
cause it is backed up by a heavy coating of white 
which holds the various colors or pigments to- 
gether. 

The transparencies are applied to the window 
or door pane just as they come. There is no back- 
ing to be removed and when laid on the wet glass 
they adhere to it close'y. All that is required 
is rubbing the sign in close contact with the glass 
in a manner similar to that employed in applying 
the transfer or decalcomania sign. 

There is a marked economy in the use of trans- 
parencies as compared to decalcomania because 
of the greater ease in mounting the transparency, 
due to the fact that there is no backing to be 
peeled off, which often, when done by amateurs, 
will destroy or deface the transferred design. 



190 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Long Life 
— Beauty — 
Utility 
of Such 
Signs 






Returns 

on 

Investment 



Both decalcomania (transfers) and transpar- 
encies have the advantage that once up, they re- 
main up indefinitely. A decalcomania sign is 
readable from the outside of the glass only, because 
of the fact that the sign is opaque, whereas the 
transparency shows from either side and as it is 
not backed up with a white coating, permits the 
light to pass through the sign day and night. 

There is no question as to the very important 
part the dealer's own store front may be made to 
play in the manufacturer's plan of advertising. 

In addition to being the least costly of all meth- 
ods of linking up the dealer with general adver- 
tising, whatever its nature, the sign on the dealer's 
window also has a definite billboard value. No 
matter what the type of s'gn, the dollar spent in 
this kind of publicity on the dealer's store front is 
without doubt the busiest dollar and the longest 
lived dollar. Permanent store-front publicity 
should not be overlooked in any advertising cam- 
paign. 




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190 



WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 



Long Life 
— Beauty — 
Utility 
of Such 
Signs 



Returns 

on 

Investment 



• 



f 



Both decalcomania (transfers) and transpar- 
encies have the advantage that once up, they re- 
main up indefinitely. A decalcomania sign is 
readable from the outside of the glass only, because 
of the fact that the sign is opaque, whereas the 
transparency shows from either side and as it is 
not backed up with a white coating, permits the 
light to pass through the sign day and night. 

There is no question as to the very important 
part the dealer's own store front may be made to 
play in the manufacturer's plan of advertising. 

In addition to being the least costly of all meth- 
ods of linking up the dealer with general adver- 
tising, whatever its nature, the sign on the dealer's 
window also has a definite billboard value. No 
matter what the type of s'gn, the dollar spent in 
this kind of publicity on the dealer's store front is 
without doubt the busiest dollar and the longest 
lived dollar. Permanent store-front publicity 
should not be overlooked in any advertising cam- 
paign. 




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ON 

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O 






h^ 'Ji 






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V fJ 



CHAPTER XXVin 

DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSI\ESS FORCE 

UNTIL about twenty years ago, no at- 
tempt had been made to use dealer dis- 
play according to any carefully devised, 
systematic plan. 

A large proportion of brand advertisers were 
using display material of one kind or another, but 
display at the dealer's had no integral place in ad- 
vertising and it was not regarded as one of the 
recognized mediums for publicity. In 1903, when 
Professor Walter Dill Scott, the first scientific 
mvestigator of advertising principles and practice, 
fixed the estimate of $600,000,000 for the annual 
cost for advertising in this country, he listed all 
the then-recognized mediums, but failed to include 
dealer-display material anywhere in the budget. 
These same figures were quoted as late as 1911 by 
Printers' Ink-with no mention of dealer display 
and in the same issue on the page facing was this 

191 



!! 



Infancy of 

Display 

Advertising 



Appro- 
priations 



If 




CHAPTER XXVIII 

DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSINESS FORCE 

UNTIL about twenty years ago, no at- 
tempt had been made to use dealer dis- 
play according to any carefully devised, 
systematic plan. 

A large proportion of brand advertisers were 
using display material of one kind or another, but 
display at the dealer's had no integral j,lace in ad- 
vertising and it was not regarded as one of the 
recognized mediums for publicity. In 1903, when 
Professor Walter Dill Scott, the first scientific 
mvestigator of adv -rtising principles and practice, 
fi-xed the estimate of $600,000,000 for the annual 
cost for advertising in this country, he listed all 
the then-recognized mediums, but failed to include 
dealer-display material anywhere in the budget. 
These same figures were quoted as late as 1911 by 
Printers' Ink—mth no mention of dealer display 
and in the same issue on the page facing was this 

191 



Infancy of 

Display 

Advertising 



Appro- 
priations 



192 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

excerpt from Thos. A. Bird in Johnson's "Library 
of Advertising " which sounds almost like prophecy : 

"This branch of advertising and selling is in its 
infancy, so far as the national advertiser is con- 
cerned. 

"Some enterprising manufacturers have seen 
the possibilities that lie in the show window and 
have taken advantage cf them. They have gone 
into the thing with the careful preparation and 
thoroughness that characterizes the big advertiser 
of to-day. These, however, have been few — so 
few, indeed, that they can easily be counted on the 
ten fingers, with several figures to spare. Others 
have gone in for window advertising in a haphaz- 
ard, desultory way. But by far the greater num- 
ber have entirely neglected this fruitful field. This 
will not always be so. In a few years every manu- 
facturer whose goods are handled by the depart- 
ment store will have learned the tremendous selling 
power of the combined show windows of the stores 
that sell his goods. He will make it easy and prof- 
itable for the merchant to put his goods in the 

windows. 

"The show window is a force that must be reck- 
oned with by the national advertiser of the future. 



DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSINESS FORCE 193 

It has a "circulation" comparing favorably with 
that of any publication, and in addition it has di- 
rectness of appeal that no printed matter can ever 
have." 

Up to 1911, then, it may be fairly claimed that 
dealer display was not fully appreciated as a busi- 
ness force. The change in attitude is strikingly 
shown by the following: 

1910 Printers' Ink contained 1 article on Win- 
dow Display. 

1911 Printers' Ink contained 12 articles on 
Window Display. 

1912 Printers' Ink contained 21 articles on 
Window Display. 

1913 Printers' Ink contained 27 articles on 
Window Display. 

1914 Printers' Ink contained 42 articles on Win- 
dow Display. 

Since 1914 Printers' Ink has had something of 
importance on dealer display in nearly every issue. 
It has become an important factor with nearly 
every advertiser, and in the year 1920 it was esti- 
mated that upward of $25,000,000 was spent 
in this form of brand advertising. To-day it is 
no longer a question of ar^juing the need of dealer 



Growth 
in 

Apprecia- 
tion 



Need 
of 

Coordination 



194 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

cooperation— that point is conceded. Adver- 
tisers know that dealer display has an extraordi- 
nary influence in any advertising campaign, and 
the question now is how can it be better coordi- 
nated with other mediums. 

Certain well-known national mediums— -Good 
Housekeeping Magazine, McClure pubHcations, 
etc.— were the first to attempt this coordination 
and preach it to all advertisers, and their efforts 
were followed by the newspapers seeking to de- 
velop large national accounts. 

In 1915 the newspapers put out their own inde- 
pendent campaign, known as the International 
Newspaper Window Display Week. This plan 
was featured in 385 important cities with nearly 
500 newspapers participating. In 1916 they re- 
peated their plan with even greater success, in 
424 cities, with over 600 newspapers participat- 
ing and soliciting dealers to make special brand 
displays. 

The idea of securing a large number of windows 
all over the country at the same time, and con- 
necting this up with newspaper or other pub- 
licity, has proven very valuable. 

"National Weeks" such as "Canned Goods 



DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSINESS FORCE 195 

Week," "Pineapple Week," "Coffee Week," 
"Hot Point Week," "Paint-up Week," "Onyx 
Hosiery Week," "Dress-up Week," etc., have 
proved successful and have been repeated by many 
associations and manufacturers. 

"Eveready Drive," which was featured in the 
fall of 1915, was an adaptation of the national week 
idea. It was conducted in connection with a 
sixty-day campaign with the result that they se- 
cured simultaneous showing in 18,500 windows, 
and 1,000 dealers made entry in the prize contest. 

An important detail of the "Eveready" cam- 
paign was featuring the actual display in the 
window, by means of illustrations appearing in 
the national medium, which created a very desir- 
able impression for the dealer and connected up 
dealer and "Eveready" products with their 
national advertising. A full report of the 
"Eveready" drive may be found in Printers' Ink 
for December 16, 1915. 

All special week campaigns necessarily must 
have reminders at the dealers, and these special 
campaigns can be conducted most economically 
and most effectively by means of window and 
store-display material, at a cost far less and re- 



Special 

Week 
Campaigns 



Economy 
of Store 
Display 
Plan 



Circulation 
Value 



Strategic 
Value 



196 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

suits far superior to those that might be obtained 
by means of general publicity. 

As a matter of fact, dealer display is the one 
form of publicity that can b? used without gen- 
eral publicity and without other media. This is 
by reason of its very nature, advertising the goods 
on the spot where the goods are for sale. It does 
not scatter broadcast, as is unavoidable with 
general publicity. It directs the money and the 
effort right where there is actual distribution. 

Window and store-display material considered 
on the purely circulation basis (i. e., general pub- 
licity) actually costs far less than the same thou- 
sand circulation would cost in other mediums, and 
what is more the circulation is most desirable 
because it reaches the right buying public at ex- 
actly the psychological moment when it is easy 
to purchase the article for which a desire or want 
has been produced. 

Window and store display is without doubt the 
most effective weapon against competing lines 
and substitution. A certain amount of sales re- 
sistance opposes every article of merchandise. 
Every advertiser and manufacturer must over- 
come the sales resistance that he is sure to experi- 



DEALER DISPLAY AS A BUSINESS FORCE 197 

ence from competing goods— from old buying 
habits of the public— from attitude of retailers— 
from indifference of clerks, from indifference of 
the jobber's salesmen— from indifference of his 
own sales force. That resistance is greatest right 
at the point where sales are made, and 
PROPER DISPLAY AT THAT POINT IS 
THE REIVIEDY. 

Display by its very nature makes it easy for the 
customer to buy. It helps to overcome previous 
buying habits, and one must not overlook the fact 
that the average human being, making an aver- 
age purchase, follows the line of least resistance 
and either buys what he has purchased before or 
buys according to the last suggestion or impression 
made on the mind. 

The attitude of dealers themselves is something 
which can be diplomatically handled through the 
medium of proper displays, and this point should 
not be overlooked when planning any kind of dis- 
play material. Window and store-display ma- 
terial when properly planned can be used to inspire 
good-will. It will overcome dealer and clerk in- 
difference, which must be reckoned with. It must 
never be forgotten that while the advertiser adver- 



Dealer 
Must 
Be 
Considered 



198 WINDOW AND STORE DISPLAY 

tises to make the sale, the sale is made at the deal- 
er's and by the dealer. 

A reminder at the dealer's is very necessary 
and in fact most essential, if your product is not 
to be forgotten. 

And finally— Window and Store Display when 
rightly planned and rightly used can be made by 
far the most productive and most practical of all 
advertising mediums. 



THE END 



i I 

i 



INDEX 



I 



I 



INDEX 






Advertising Agencies, shaping of 
mediums, 5, 6. 

Advertising expenditures, in pub- 
leations, 1899, 4; in publica- 
oTo\\^^^' ^' ^" ^" °»ediums, 

1903-11, 191; in dealer display, 
1920, 193. ^ 

Advertising mediums, a product 
of growth, 6, 56. 

A. N. A. M., 32, 34. 

Analysis for display, 113. 

Appropriations for display, 57 
59, 191, 193. ^ ' 

Art, importance of picture, 105 

Art and display, 113, 120. 

A.ito Supply Stores, number in 
^- o., 31; attitude toward dis- 
plays, 41; display tests, 91. 

Bakeries, sell via display, 82. 
iJakst, art influence of, 127 
Barnard, W F., quoted, 107, 110. 
Big Idea, perception of, 113, 
116. 

Billboards, 30, 48, 52. 

Brand Advertising, problems of, 
4, 32. 

Campaign, evolution of modern, 

6, 14; plan of display, 19. 
Candy Stores, number in U S 
30; sell via display, 82; display 
tests, 90, 159. ^ 

Cardboard, has its laws, 73, 152 
Cigar Stores, number in U. S., 30 
Circulation, made dependable, 6; 
danger of impeded, 17; applied 
to windows, 23, 24; imoort- 
ance of kind, 27; that interests 



^nJ^^^' '^^' ^^ windows, 188, 
193, 196. 

Clark, Professor, quoted, 150. 

169-^ "m^"^ ^^ ^'^^^^^' ^^' 

Code of DealerDisplay, 60. 

Color, effect of, 99, 100, 123- 
as a poster factor, 125; as re- 
lated to display, 130-140. 

Commercial Art, 121-124. 

Construction, importance of, 73- 
76, 145-152 

Consumer, helped by identifi- 
cation, 14; theory of con- 
sumer demand, 15; needs prod- 
ding, 18, 83, 197. 

Continuity of display, 176, 184 

Cooperation, dealer's side of, 37- 
reasons for failure, 47; corner- 
stone of, 50; best methods for. 
63. 

Copy, as a display factor, 141- 
144. 

Counter, display on, 74, 75, 77- 

84, 86-90. 
Counter display stands, 148. 
Counter display containers, 149 

153. 

Crews, for distributing dealer 
material, 33, 59, 63, 188. 

Cutouts, novelty of, 10; con- 
struction and life, 76; small 
vs. large, 101; compared with 
screen displays, 149-152. 

Data, needed by manufacturer, 

11,12,57,102,103. 
Dealer motives, 43. 



201 



II 



202 



INDEX 



Dealer Service Bureau, 34. 

Decalcomania, 184, 187, 188. 

Dental cream, sales test, 159; 
distinguishing brand argu- 
ments, 172. 

Department Stores, number in 
U. S., 31. 

Design, effect of, 100, 123; as a 
poster factor, 125; copy a 
part of, 144. 

Display stand, construction im- 
portant, 74, 75. 

Distribution, of display ma- 
terial, 62-71;" favored by 
smaller material, 101, 103. 

Dominate, how to, 49, 97, 98, 
100. 

Drug Stores, number in U. S., 30; 
in small towns, 161; attitude 
toward displays, 41; display 
test, 86. 

Drygoods stores, in small towns, 
161. 

Educating dealer, 20, 169. 
Enamel letters, 185. 

Flavoring extracts, sales test, 

159. 
Furniture Stores, number in 

U.S., 31. 

General Publicity, must con- 
nect with dealer, 17, 19, 196- 
198. 

General Stores, number in U. S., 
30; in small towns, 161. 

German poster art, 127. 

Giant reproductions, 49, 

Glass, unknown in ancient shops, 
2; influence on trade, 3. 

Grocery Stores, number in U. S., 
30; in small towns, 161; atti- 
tude toward displays, 41-82; 
small unit displays placed by 
salesmen, 59; display test, 88. 



Haberdasher Stores, number in 

U. S., 31; in small towns, 161*. 

display tests, 91. 
Hangers, 9, 147. 
Hardware Stores, number in 

U. S., 31; in small towns, 162; 

attitude toward displays, 41. 
Hoover, Herbert, quoted, 19. 

Illiteracy and display, 2, 3. 

Imagination, as factor in selling, 
105. 

Investigation, need of, 12; first 
attempt at, 35; should be 
made by manufacturer, 52; on 
increase of sales, 85; method 
of sales tests, 92, 95; of dealer 
window measurements, 102. 

James, Edward, quoted, 162. 

Japanese art, lesson from, 100; 
influence on poster art, 127. 

Jewelry Stores, number in U. S., 
30; in small towns, 162; atti- 
tude toward displays, 41. 

Jobbers, and display distribu- 
tion, 33, 58. 

Lettering in modern display, 143. 
Life of display material, 72. 
Lukeish on color, 136. 

Magazine circulation, 23, 29. 

Magazine space, 101. 

Manufacturer's motives one 
sided, 102. 

Mason, Gibbs, quoted, 139. 

Medicine, sales tests, 86, 87. 

Mediums of Advertising, dis- 
play of merchandise the oldest, 
1; comparisons with dealer 
display, 27, 29; future of dis- 
play, 191. 

Metal signs, 184. 

Middle Ages, signs used in, 2. 

Millais, Sir John, 121. 



•1 



INDEX 



203 



Motives, of dealers, 43, 44; 

of manufacturers, 48, 102; 

which make sales, 106. 
Munsterberg, quoted, 101. 

National Advertisers, attitude 
toward display in 1914, 58; 
need of dealer display, 20, 192- 
198. 

National Weeks, 194, 195. 

Nature, lesson from, 130, 131. 

Newspapers, early advertising 
in, 3; evolution as a medium, 
23; compared with dealer dis- 
play, 29; cooperate with Na- 
tional Brands, 194. 

Notion Stores, attitude toward 
displays, 41. 

Optical eflPects, 98, 99. 
"Over-production" fallacy, 19. 
Painted Signs, 184, 186. 

Paper window material, 74. 

Parsons, Prof. Alvah, quoted, 
134. 

Patent Medicine Era of Adver- 
tising, 8. 

Paying for cooperation, 63, 64. 

Periodical space systematized, 
56. 

Permanent display, 184-190. 

Pictures, stimulate consumer's 
mind, 15; must be vivid, 113, 
importance in display, 105- 
112;113-118, 123. 

"Pretty Picture" Advertising, 8. 

Pompeii, wall signs of, 2. 

Poore, Henry R., quoted, 139. 

Population, comparison, 160-161. 

Posters, origin of name, 3; in 
dealer display, 125. 

Prestige, importance to dealer, 
151. 

Printers' Ink, articles on Window 
Display, 193. 



Prize Contests, 63, 64, 195. 
Psychology of domination, 98, 
100; and sales, 105. 

Roman shop signs, 2. 
Rowell, Geo. R., 5. 



Salesman, and display coopera 

tion, 64. 
Sales and mental pictures, 15, 16 
Sales increased by display, 85, 159 
Screen panel displays, 149. 
Selling Act, implies control, 14 

shifts to mahufacture, 32. 
Shoe Stores, number in U. S., 30, 

in small town, 161; attitude 

toward displays, 41. 
Show cards, 9, 10, 148. 
Size as a display factor, 10, 97, 

102. 

Small towns, importance of, 160, 
170. 

Soup, sales test, 89. 

Space, as an advertising com- 
modity, 6, 24; in dealers' win- 
dows estimated, 30; handling 
for display diflfers, 114, 123. 

Spark Plug, sales test, 159. 

Street car cards, 30, 146. 

Trade Marks, growth of, 4, 5; 
promotion, 6. 

Transfers, compared with trans- 
parencies, 188. 

Transparencies, 184. 

Turnover, speeded by display, 20. 

Visibility of colors, 137. 

Waste, of waiting cooperation, 
40, 176; due to ignorance, 68; 
through WTong planning, 43, 48. 

Wrigley, William, quoted, 19. 

Young, Prof. Paul Thomas, 
quoted, 133. 







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